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Институт за изследване на населението и човека
 
  • ПСИХОЛОГИЧНИ ИЗСЛЕДВАНИЯ
    PSIHOLOGICHNI IZSLEDVANIA
    PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH (in Bulgarian)
  •     
    ISSN 1311-4700 (Print)
    ISSN 2367-4563  (Online)

Година 1, Книжка 1-2 (1998)

ПАРИТЕ КАТО ЗНАК – ПСИХОЛОГИЧНО ИЗСЛЕДВАНЕ НА ЛИЧНОСТНИЯ СМИСЪЛ НА ПАРИТЕ
Елена Паспаланова и Пенка Христова
Абстракт:
The value "material prosperity" has often been rated at the top of value hierarchy. Its core components is the concept of money. The reported study aims at revealing the meaning of the concept "money" using the procedure of content analysis of the free-format answers of the question: "What does money mean for you?". A. Maslow's theory of needs hierarchy was used as a conceptual framework. 63 subjects (31 males and 32 females) were investigated. The content analysis of the received text reveals at least 11 themes concerning the meaning of money which were grouped into 6 broader categories:
  • 1. Importance of money.
  • 2. Money as an instrument for satisfying human needs.
  • 3. Money today.
  • 4. Ambivalent attitude toward money.
  • 5. Money as a sign.
  • 6. Emotions related to money.
Explicit meaning of money as a sign as well as their implicitly meaning (as an instrument) are discussed in the context of socio-demographic parameters. Results suggest that money as a sign has both explicit and implicit personal meaning. The meaning of money as an instrument for satisfying higher level personal needs is more expressed for women, students, and for younger people.
*Език на статията: Български
ГРУПОВИ ВЗАИМООТНОШЕНИЯ – МЕЖДУЕТНИЧЕСКИ БАЛАНС ИЛИ ВРАЖДА
Толя Стоицова, Йоланда Зографова и Виктор Клинчарски
Абстракт:
The problem of ethnic interrelations is discussed in the frame of work of social changes taking part in Bulgaria today. The anomy is revealed as a present state of Bulgarian society. Four ethnic groups are investigated-Bulgarian, Turkish, Jewish and Armenian, in concern with their individual and group normative behaviors, social attitudes and social distances. The hypotheses about the increase of destructive and deviant behaviors, as well as the decrease in the regulative function of social norms in all ethnic groups are proved. In comparison with the interpersonal relations among people, belonging to one ethnic group, stronger negative attitudes and greater social distances characterized interethnic group relations. Jews appeared to be the most adaptive ethnic group with no significant differences with Bulgarians. The unexpectable results are connected, on the one hand, with Armenians, whose social group significantly differs with all other ethnic groups. On the other hand – Turkish subjects show the highest level of social norms behavior guidance. On the base of the results, we could conclude that a new interethnic equilibrium exists now in Bulgaria and the fear of appearance of dangerous ethnic conflicts is first ofall a political speculation, than a real possibility.
*Език на статията: Български
ПРОФЕСИОНАЛЕН СТРЕС ПРИ ПОЛИЦАИ И ЛЕКАРИ – МЕЖДУКУЛТУРНО СРАВНЕНИЕ
Веселина Русинова, Лидия Василева и Соня Жильова
Абстракт:
The study is based on the model of occupational stress proposed by C. Cooper et al. The Occupational Stresss Indicator (OSI) method is used. The aim of the study is to reveal the differences in the major parameters of occupational stress among policemen and medical doctors in a cross-cultural aspect.The level of occupational stress is compared between German, Northern Ireland and Bulgarian policemen, as well as between English and Bulgarian medical doctors. The results of the cross-cultural comparison indicate that bBulgarian policemen and medical doctors show higher scores in most of the occupational stress parameters. This is mainly due to the macro-stressors and also to some cultural peculiarities of the Bulgarian population.
*Език на статията: Български
СЪВРЕМЕННИ ПОДХОДИ КЪМ ИЗСЛЕДВАНЕ НА ВНИМАНИЕТО
Богдана Александрова
Абстракт:
In this paper current approaches to the assessment of attention are presented. The initial discussion focuses on the traditional methods of clinical assessment: psychometric tests which provide indirect information about attention, specific neuropsychological tests of attention and direct behavioral observation and measurement. CNS evoked-potential correlates of attention are also reviewed. At the end, a new experimental assessment method, incorporating the concept of attention within the framework of Information Processing Theory and Sternberg 's Additive Factor Method, is discussed. On the basis of recent research it is argued that the so called paradigmatic approach is a promising approach to the assessment of attention deficits.
*Език на статията: Български
КОЖНАТА ЧУВСТВИТЕЛНОСТ – ПРЕНЕБРЕГВАН ИНФОРМАЦИОНЕН КАНАЛ
Малина Йорданова
Абстракт:
Предмет на настоящата статия е кожната чувствителност, един често пренебрегван сензорен вход. След кратък преглед на анатомичните структури, осъществяващи този вид възприятие, се изтъква необходимостта от проучвания в областта на тактилното възприятие. Разгледани са основните насоки в изследователските търсения в момента – използването на тактилната чувствителност като диагностичен критерий и рехабилитационно средство при пациенти с мозъчни увреди или тежки травми на ръцете и значението на тактилните програми за стимулация на преждевременно родени деца. Отделено е внимание и на практическото приложение на тактилната чувствителност за производство на протези, компенсиращи дефекти в зрителното и слуховото възприятие, както и за конструиране на сензорни системи за новите поколения роботи.
*Език на статията: Английски
СЪЗДАВАНЕ НА МЕТОД ЗА УСТАНОВЯВАНЕ НА ПСИХОСОМАТИЧНИ ОПЛАКВАНИЯ ПРИ КЛИНИЧНО ЗДРАВИ ХОРА
Анна Иванова
Абстракт:
The new definition of health based on the project "Health 2000" of the WHO is discussed. The importance of the evaluation of psychosomatic complaints is pointed out. An original Bulgarian method for analysis of this matter is developed and presented. The questionnaire consists of 36 items, describing several kinds of painful or unpleasant feelings and somatic or physic complaints by healthy people. Psychometric analysis on empirical data of different samples of workers are examined. The data obtained shows good objectivity and, reliability in accordance with Chronbach's à, and validity.
*Език на статията: Български
КОМПЕТЕНТНОСТ И АЛТЕРНАТИВАТА АЕЦ
Румяна Божинова
Абстракт:
The study reveals the effect of knowledge on the behavioral strategies towards the Nuclear Power Station "Belene", depending on different kinds of motivation. The study involves 473 subjects, devided to different groups: station workers and people living in a different distance from the station:Svishtov, Pleven and Sofia. People who are professionally engaged are positively oriented towards building of the station. Rest of the people are strongly against such an alternative. That is obvious from their assessments, emotional states and goal-directed behaviors.
*Език на статията: Български
БЪЛГАРСКИЯТ ЦЕННОСТЕН МОДЕЛ В ЕВРОПЕЙСКАТА ПЕРСПЕКТИВА
Красимира Байчинска
Абстракт:
The aim of this article is to describe the value model of the contemporary Bulgarian culture in the framework of East and West European culture taken as a whole. The data from teacher's samples participated in the biggest cross-cultural study of values in the 90s are used. Special attention is Bulgaria, Eastern and Western Europe. Hierarchical models that can easily describe the peculiarities of each culture are proposed. The results show that Bulgarian value model is centered around egalitarianism, conservatism and mastery. Comparative analysis reveals that it is similar to that of East European culture where egalitarianism and conservatism are also estimated of primary importance than these of harmony.
*Език на статията: Български