Институт за изследване на населението и човека
 
  • ПСИХОЛОГИЧНИ ИЗСЛЕДВАНИЯ
    PSIHOLOGICHNI IZSLEDVANIA
    PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH (in Bulgarian)
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    ISSN 1311-4700 (Print)
    ISSN 2367-4563  (Online)
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Година 5, Книжка 1 (2002)

АПРОБИРАНЕ НА МЕТОДИКАТА НА ДЕЙВИД КОЛБ ЗА ОЦЕНКА НА ИНДИВИДУАЛНИЯ СТИЛ НА УЧЕНЕ
Александър Пожарлиев
Абстракт:
In this study the Kolb's concept of learning styles is presented. It is based on his experiential learning theory and model of learning as a four-stage cycle. The Learning Style Inventory, developed by Kolb was translated into Bulgarian language. The research was undertaken having as a goal a pilot study determining the Bulgarian equivalence of the instrument. Results from 344 subjects have indicated that the Bulgarian version in general is as reliable as the original English one. The Bulgarian version differentiates among student's major study areas, gender and age in accordance with the theory and some other research. In addition the validity and reliability of the instrument was investigated. The Bulgarian version demonstrates a low up to moderate internal consistency coefficients and test-retest reliability that are similar to the most of the obtained in U.S., UK and Israel data. The construct validity was established by using factor analysis and correlation analysis between the subscales. The two bipolar dimensions were found as predicted. The results conform to the ones in other similar studies. The Bulgarian LSI demonstrates initial equivalence as a whole, allowing for its utilization in further research. It could be a subject of further improvement, concerning several of its items.
*Език на статията: Български
ВИДОВЕ ОБЯСНЕНИЯ ПРИ ОБВИНЕНИЕ В КОРУПЦИЯ В ПЕЧАТНИТЕ МЕДИИ
Антоанета Русинова-Христова
Абстракт:
The article presents investigation of the political elite's account rhetoric at the corruption scandal situation. The ways of reaction are analyzed by its media reflection. The types of accounts are classified by K. McGraw's model. She differentiates four types of accounts: concessions, excuses, justification and denial. The results outline specific choice of explanation type at political elite in Bulgaria. The media preferences in reflection of the corruption problem when the specific examples have organized public opinion are exposed.
*Език на статията: Български
НАГЛАСИ НА БЪЛГАРИТЕ КЪМ РАЗЛИЧНИ ЕТНОСИ В УСЛОВИЯТА НА ПРЕХОД В БЪЛГАРИЯ (1990-2000)
Станислава Стоянова
Абстракт:
This paper presents an analysis of the results from some empirical studies for interethnic attitudes and social distances in Bulgaria during the period of transition toward the democracy (1990-2000). On the basis of comparative analysis of ethnic attitudes, stereotypes and social distances of the Bulgarians toward other ethnic communities their specificities and dynamic of change are outlined. A prediction of the future evolution of the interethnic relationships in Bulgaria is grounded on the data resulting from the studies during the past few years and on the tendencies in the evolution of ethnic attitudes and social distances.
*Език на статията: Български
ПОТИСКАНЕ, ЗАБРАВЯНЕ, ИНВЕРСИЯ НА ОБЕЗЦЕНЯВАЩИ ИДЕИ
Васил Мадолев
Абстракт:
The repression is the strongest defense mechanism, and it has different forms. We assume that some of these forms play the role of transitive phenomena, which have the trend of developing another defense mechanism-suppression.
We have formulated the hypothesis that the suppression has an optional influence on the process of forgetting statements, which devalue the ego. The force of suppression and respectively the effect of forgetting depend on the possibilities of the negative moral messages, which sanction and are addressed to the ego.
At the same time we have proved the hypothesis that the suppression is not always successful. That is why there is a parallel mechanism, which is being switched on – the cognitive distortion. The result of these processes is the synthesis of two synchronous mechanisms-the first one is consciously initiated, and the second one functions unconsciously.
*Език на статията: Български
ВЗАИМОВРЪЗКИ МЕЖДУ ЛОКАЛИЗАЦИЯ НА КОНТРОЛА, РАЗЛИЧНИ ВИДОВЕ КОПИНГ СТИЛОВЕ И ДЕПРЕСИЯ
Максимка Рашева
Абстракт:
The present study investigates the role generalized beliefs of control of effectiveness of coping with stressful encounter and mental well-being.
The results indicate that internals and externals differ in effective show that they use in significant less extent planning and active coping styles and significant more use focus on and venting of emotions, behavioral disengagement, wish to escape from other people, psychological escape, ruminative style of coping, reassurance seeking and seeking social support for emotional reasons than do the internals.
The externals report more high levels of depression than internals.
Males and females differ in locus of control, levels of depression and ways of coping with stressful events.
*Език на статията: Български
ПРОБЛЕМЪТ ЗА НАРКОМАНИЯТА В АРАБСКИЯ СВЯТ
Зиад Талеб
Абстракт:
Psychoactive substances are part of human culture for thousands of years. But since 15-16 c. it starts to be discussed the problem of drug addiction. Today this problem unfortunately is world well known. The Arabian World is not an exception.
The seriousness of drug addiction problem confirms the necessity it to be studied in concern of different aspects: reasons of appearance, possibilities of patient treatment and strategies for coping with the process.
In the article the major stress is on revealing the drug addiction in Arabian World. These countries could be divided into two parts - West (Africa), where there is a French influence, and East-with the predominance of English culture. This division is important as it plays a special role in drug addiction processes. The last are discussed in detail in several Arabian countries, namely Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Morocco and Egypt.
*Език на статията: Български
ПСИХОЛОГИЧНИ ОСОБЕНОСТИ НА ИЗВЪРШИТЕЛИТЕ НА СЕКСУАЛНО НАСИЛИЕ В ЙЕМЕНСКАТА КРИМИНОЛОГИЧНА И ПСИХОЛОГИЧНА ЛИТЕРАТУРА
Абдул Хаким Мохамед Радман
Абстракт:
The present article submits for discussion an actual criminal-psychological view f the constantly increasing violence in contemporary world, as well as a phenomenon which appears in a specific and intensive way, particularly in Yemen's society.
Modern approaches towards sexual violence have been analyzed in theoretical aspect and particularly those ones towards the sexual coercion problem, all of them being elaborated by contemporary scholars in Yemen.
On the basis of this analysis it is suggested a psychological typology, as well as the outlines of Yemen's society cultural society cultural specificities describing the entire process, the personality of sexual crime offender, as well as the female victims. Some optimistic prognoses have been traced out against the common “bad diagnosis” background, concerning the introduction of modern corrective-psychotherapeutic approaches towards the relative resocialization of sexual crime perpetrators in the Republic of Yemen.
*Език на статията: Български
СТРУКТУРА НА ОРИЕНТИРАНОТО КЪМ РЕШЕНИЕ ИНТЕРВЮ
Елка Божкова, Владимир Бостанджиев
Абстракт:
The aim of this article is to analyze the Solution-Focused Brief Therapy by the “verification method” used in mathematical logic. The article consists of two sections-introduction and therapy algorithm. The introduction contains brief outline of the therapeutic method discussed, with emphasis on solutions reached by the client. The therapy algorithm is presented by a bloc diagram showing the sequence of stages: formulation of goal , miracle question, progress scale, first step, and message, as well as the goals to be achieved at each stage. This section winds up with a recapitulation and conclusions. The main problem discussed is the research of efficiency of this type of therapy. A basic efficiency factor is the formulation of a realistic and attainable goal. The use of the progress scale during the therapy enables the quantitative measurement of the results achieved.
*Език на статията: Български
НЕДИРЕКТИВНАТА ТЕРАПЕВТИЧНА НАГЛАСА В КЛИЕНТОЦЕНТРИРАНАТА ТЕРАПИЯ НА КАРЛ РОДЖЪРС
Росица Георгиева
Абстракт:
The nondirective attitude is a prerequisite condition of the true understanding and comprehensive practice of Client-centered therapy. This article outlines the development of the Rogerian idea of non directive ness and the contemporary discussion on the topic. Three levels of a therapist's nondirective attitude are distinguished: practical level (therapeutic skills); functional level (priorities and goals of the therapy process); value level (overall philosophy of human nature and personal relationships). If one could use a musical metaphor, the first level will be the basic knowledge of notes; the second one could be labeled routine professional practice and the third level will be connected with the individual virtuosity. These three levels are varieties in the performance of such an exquisite symphony as Carl Rogers' humanistic approach is.
*Език на статията: Български