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Институт за изследване на населението и човека
 
  • ПСИХОЛОГИЧНИ ИЗСЛЕДВАНИЯ
    PSIHOLOGICHNI IZSLEDVANIA
    PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH (in Bulgarian)
  •     
    ISSN 1311-4700 (Print)
    ISSN 2367-4563  (Online)

Година 6, Книжка 1 (2003)

ОБЩАТА ТЕОРИЯ НА СИСТЕМИТЕ: ЩЕ ЗАМЕНИ ЛИ ТЯ МЕТАПСИХОЛОГИЯТА?
Никола Атанасов
Абстракт:
A trend in the development of the theory of psychoanalysis towards replacing methapsychological concepts with concepts drawn from information theory and general systems theory is outlined. Some predecessors of these developments within psychoanalysis-like ego psychology (Hartmann, Spitz, Erikson, Maler), object relatations theory (Fairbairn) and the attachment theory of Bowlby-are reviewed in this context. Daniel Stern's theory of the early development of the sense of self is used to exemplity the possibility to view the self as the organizing principle of the psyche. The implications of these developments for the psychoanalytic psychopathology and therapy are referred to. The author argues that introducing systemic concepts to the theory of psychoanalysis does not necessarily involve the abandonment of the intrapsychic focus and of concepts that are still useful for the clinical theory.
*Език на статията: Български
ВЛИЯНИЕ НА КОНТЕКСТУАЛНАТА ИНФОРМАЦИЯ ВЪРХУ КОГНИТИВНАТА ПРЕРАБОТКА ПРИ АКТИВИРАНЕ НА ПОТРЕБНОСТТА ОТ СИГУРНОСТ
Ангел Величков
Абстракт:
In two experiments we investigate the impact of the context on the direction and extension to which Ss activate and process additional information when estimate the probability for occurrence of dangerous events. It was found that contextual signals that moderately activate the need for safety evoke cognitive processing that contains arguments both toward possible occurrence of danger and against such possibility. Such balanced processing underlies estimated probabilities. However when contextual signals activate the need for safety cognitive processing shifts toward finding predominately threatening information. Conclusion is drawn that interaction between basic motivational tendencies of personality and primart contextual signals define the flow of cognitive processing and formation of subjective expectancies that further might be involved in planning and decision making.
*Език на статията: Български
МЕЖДУКУЛТУРНИ ИЗСЛЕДВАНИЯ НА ЦЕННОСТИ В ТРУДА В КОНТЕКСТА НА ТЕОРИЯТА НА Г. ХОФСТЕДЕ
Лидия Василева
Абстракт:
A brief overview on some cross-cultural studies is made concerning work-related values, based on G. Hofstede's culture oriented theory. These studies are aimed at comparing some work values and leadership styles in managers from different countries of West Europe, East Europe, USA and the Far East. The differences between managers, measured bu Hofstede's five value dimensions reflect some culture specific characteristics that influence organizational behavior. The results of a pilot study indicate that Bulgarian managers show high scores on Powr distance, Individualism and Masculinity compared to managers from other countries.
*Език на статията: Български
ЕФЕКТИ НА СОЦИАЛНАТА ПОДКРЕПА ВЪРХУ СТИЛОВЕ ЗА СПРАВЯНЕ СЪС СТРЕСОВИ СЪБИТИЯ И ДЕПРЕСИВНИ СИМПТОМИ
Максимка Рашева
Абстракт:
The aims of present study is to examine two action's mechanisms of social support on depression and relationship between locus of control and social support.
The findings show direct negative significant correlations among support from husband| spouse, emotional support, instrumental support, financial support, facility, with which ones may receive a support, extent of communication and intimacy, satisfaction of support and depression.
The second action's mechanism of social support in preventing depression is through coping processes. Some social resources as supervisor and co-worker support are positively link to use of problem-focused coping styles. Other aspects of social support are negatively associate with focus on and venting of emotions, behavioral disengagement and wish to escape from the people.
The significant correlation between locus of control and social support are not observed. Internals and externals are not differ in levels of social support.
*Език на статията: Български
СРАВНЕНИЕ МЕЖДУ ВАЖНОСТ НА ЦЕЛИТЕ В ЖИВОТА И ШАНСОВЕТЕ ЗА ТЯХНОТО ПОСТИГАНЕ ПРИ ИЗСЛЕДВАНЕ НА БЛАГОПОЛУЧИЕТО НА БЪЛГАРСКИТЕ СТУДЕНТИ
Борян Андреев
Абстракт:
The aim of this study was to analize the importance of life purposes and their chances to be achieved in the context of researching the well-being of Bulgarian university students. The research established the significance of the differences between the importance of each group of purposes and the chances to achieve them. A comparison has been made between the different purposes in terms of their importance and chance to be achieved. The results showed that the participants in the research found as most important those purposes that are related to intimate relation, personal freedom, and positive relationships. Less important were found those purposes related to financial prosperity, material comfort, and acknowledgement. No significant differences were found while evaluating both sexes. The research established a high level of correlation between the evaluation of chances, importance of purposes, and vitality.
*Език на статията: Български
СЪВРЕМЕННИ ПОДХОДИ ЗА КОНТРОЛ ВЪРХУ АГРЕСИЯТА И НАСИЛИЕТО
Диана Бакалова
Абстракт:
A considerable part of the researches on human aggression and violence have been inspired by the pursuit to apply the knowledge obtained from them directly into the field of prevention of destructive aggression manifestations.
The present paper presents our attempt to summarize the ways and means for control over human aggression as we divide them into two major groups according to their aim and features: the first group comprises all mechanisms (techniques), which relate mainly to situational restraints of human aggressiveness manifestation, and the second one includes those global approaches (tactics), which result in a long-term reduction of aggressive drive as a personality trait.
The effectiveness of those mechanisms and tactics is analyzed in relation to the management of aggression.
*Език на статията: Български
КОНСТРУИРАНЕ И ВАЛИДИЗАЦИЯ НА БЪЛГАРСКАТА СКАЛА ЗА СТРАХ ОТ НЕУСПЕХ
Маргарита Дилова
Абстракт:
The paper presents a 24 –item-questionnaire for measuring fear of success. Its approbation with 237 subjects shows good psychometric qualities. Validating studies revealed, that fear of success is positively correlated with high school grades, and negatively correlated with willingness to inform other people of one's success. The hypothesis that fear of success is related to leadership was not confirmed.
*Език на статията: Български
“ЖИЗНЕН ПАСИАНС”-МЕТОДИКА ЗА ИЗСЛЕДВАНЕ И ТЕРАПИЯ НА ЕКЗИСТЕНЦИАЛНИ ПРОБЛЕМИ
Росица Георгиева
Абстракт:
The article deals with a new method, which combines research and therapeutic aims in working with people, who have existential problems. It is based on Rogerian person-centered approach and has phenomenological features. It considers Carl Rogers' views on the significance of phenomenological methods in psychology and psychotherapy. The article on lines how the method is used and how it has been applied in helping middle-aged women to accept their “change of life”.
*Език на статията: Български
СОЦИАЛНОПСИХОЛОГИЧНИ ОСОБЕНОСТИ НА ОБЩУВАНЕТО В ИНТЕРНЕТ. ИНТЕРНЕТ-ЗАВИСИМОСТ
Бистра Мизова, Гарабед Баракян
Абстракт:
Nowadays, Internet as a global information network is of great significance for the worldwide social processes. That appears to be one of the most powerful factors of socialization, globalization and democratization. Since Internet extremely fast hast has become an essential mean of communication it is important to get familiar with the basic communication form and patterns in the web. Their main features and characteristics are outlined in the present article.
A social psychological analysis of the virtual communication has been carried out. Positive and negative tendencies in using the global network are concluded. The “Internet addiction disorder” phenomenon is described and analyzed.
*Език на статията: Български
ЛИЧНОСТЕН ОПТИМИЗЪМ/ПЕСИМИЗЪМ И ПРОГНОЗИРАНЕ НА СЛУЧАЯ С БЪЛГАРСКИТЕ МЕДИЦИ В ЛИБИЯ
Ергюл Таир
Абстракт:
This article investigates the relation between personal optimism/pessimism and perception of media information. For that purpose a sample of 62 persons were tested with several instruments. We found differences in the interpretation of past and present information depending on personal characteristics. Pessimism is associated with more uncritical perception of messages. It correlates with holding to neutral positions on a predictive way of unclear situation. Optimism is associated with more objectivity and taking up a definite stand. A correlation was also found between personal optimism/pessimism and anxiety. So we can conclude that the general expectations (optimism /pessimism) influence on forming opinions and perhaps on behavior.
*Език на статията: Български
КОМПОНЕНТИ НА ВНИМАНИЕТО И ТЕХНИТЕ ОСОБЕНОСТИ ПРИ ДЕЦА СЪС СПЕЦИФИЧНИ ОБУЧИТЕЛНИ ЗАТРУДНЕНИЯ
Богдана Александрова, Евелива Богданова
Абстракт:
202 healthy children and 53 children with specific learning disabilities (LD) within the age range of 8 to 13 years were investigated with tests of attention. Factor analysis was performed that generally supported the attention model as described by Mirsky et al. (1991). Similar three factors were produced: sustain, shift and perceptual speed both for control and LD children and an extended model with LD sample resulted in the identification of the encode factor. Results are discussed in terms of structural characteristics of attention.
*Език на статията: Български
ЗРИТЕЛНА ПЕРЦЕПЦИЯ НА ОБЕМНИ ФИГУРИ ПРИ ЗДРАВНИ ИНДИВИДИ
Йорданка Лалова, Таня Лекова
Абстракт:
The essential idea of this experimental work is to study the perceptive capacity of healthy adults in the event of binocular tachistoscopic presentation of rounded and pointed volumetric geometrical figures on a computer screen. The factors studied are sex, reaction time, type of answer, type of stimulus. Performance was not influenced by the choice of hand in both men and women. Women that are known to have less prominent lateralization of the brain function, discriminate faster between same and different couples of stimuli. Men and women discriminate between pointed figures better than between rounded ones.
*Език на статията: Български
ЗРИТЕЛНО-ПРОСТРАНСТВЕНИ ДЕФИЦИТИ ПРИ ДИСЛЕКСИЯ НА РАЗВИТИЕТО
Мария Величкова, Христос Мелениос, Сийка Пенчева
Абстракт:
We have studied 20 children with developmental dyslexia by tachistoscopic methods. Stimuli were presented bilaterally and unilaterally, successively and simultaneously and consisted of either 3-letter verbal words, or log atoms. The principal finding was that left visual field (i.e. right hemisphere) generated better responses for verbal stimuli in comparison to log atoms in dyslexic children as compared with normal. Thus, right hemisphere could be considered the dominant one for language processing in dyslexic children.
*Език на статията: Български