Институт за изследване на населението и човека
 
  • ПСИХОЛОГИЧНИ ИЗСЛЕДВАНИЯ
    PSIHOLOGICHNI IZSLEDVANIA
    PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH (in Bulgarian)
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    ISSN 1311-4700 (Print)
    ISSN 2367-4563  (Online)
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Година 8, Книжка 1 (2005)

ВЗЕМАНЕ НА РЕШЕНИЯ ПРИ РИСК И НЕОПРЕДЕЛЕНОСТ: II. БЪЛГАРСКИТЕ ИКОНОМИСТИ И КОМПЮТЪРНИ СПЕЦИАЛИСТИ
Елица Христова, Георги Менгов, Енчо Герганов
Абстракт:
Individual decision making under risk and uncertainty is known to deviate from the rational behaviour of maximizing profits and minimizing losses w.r.t. probabilities and available statistics. In this paper we studied such deviations by experiments in economic and business setting. We polled Bulgarians with relevant university degrees and some experience from two professional groups — economists (N = 52) and information technology experts (N = 48). We hypothesized that in economic and business decision making the economists would be more rational. Our results provide only partial support for this conjecture. While the economists had more consistent risk strategy, the IT experts fared better as intuitive statisticians by more skillfully applying the representativeness heuristic. Both groups were prone to substantial irrationality when the circumstances provoked affective reactions.
*Език на статията: Български
ПСИХОЛОГИЧЕН ПРОЧИТ НА УВОДНИТЕ МАТЕРИАЛИ ЗА ТЕРОРИСТИЧНИТЕ СЪБИТИЯ В САЩ ОТ 11 СЕПТЕМВРИ, 2001 В БЪЛГАРСКАТА ПРЕСА: II. ВЕСТНИК "ДНЕВНИК" - "ТРАГЕДИЯТА РАЗТЪРСИ СВЕТА"
Толя Стоицова, Хауърд Полио, Силвия Цветанска, Росица Георгиева, Антоанета Русинова-Христова, Бистра Мизова и Николай Бавро
Абстракт:
We are trying to develop a specific psycholinguistic and phenomenologi-cal methodology of understanding nature of terrorism as reflected in mass media. We have started by a study attempting to answer the question: how people from different cultures are making sense about terrorism described in editorials of official prints. As a model we analyze newspapers editorials reflecting terrorist attacks against the US on 09/11 in 5 different cultures: Bulgarian, American, Russian, Spanish and English.
The major sources of information included in our methodology are the following: (1) The number and pattern of the editorials relating to the attack and its aftermath, (2) The literary styles in which the editorials are written, (3) The nature and number of historical references used, (4) The specific figures of speech noted as salient, and (5) The overall structure of themes emerging from the year long period of editorial reflection.
In this article we are presenting mainly the results from social and psychological analysis of "Dnevnik" editorials. We also compare some data concerning both Bulgarian prints — "Sega" and "Dnevnik" to show that beside cross-cultural differences there are different mass media policies within one and the same native culture.
*Език на статията: Български
ВЛИЯНИЕ НА НЕГАТИВНИТЕ РОЛЕВИ ПЕРЦЕПЦИИ ВЪРХУ ДИНАМИКАТА НА ПСИХОЛОГИЧНИЯ СТРЕС – ЛОНГИТЮДНО ИЗСЛЕДВАНЕ
Мария Радославова, Ангел Величков
Абстракт:
This paper presents data from longitudinal study on the effects of two role stressors - ambiguity and conflict on psychological stress of employees of the same organization. We differentiate four levels of stress but we test the hypothesis that the stressors affect only two of them. Subjective reactions are diagnosed through four measurements of non-homogeneous sample on sex, tenure and activity. The data illustrate that both stressors determine the dynamics of the stress reactions in a specific way. Role ambiguity evokes long lasting feeling of uncertainty. Role conflict causes a state of depression in a given moment but depending on the frequency of emotions. The discriminant analysis reveals a complex of emotions, which is typical for the depressive state development.
*Език на статията: Български
ПРИПИСВАНЕ НА ОТГОВОРНОСТ ЗА КОРУПЦИОННИ ДЕЙСТВИЯ В БЪЛГАРСКИЯ ПЕЧАТ
Антоанета Русинова-Христова
Абстракт:
The article presents the attribution of responsibility problem in the context of scandals for corruption as the way for influence on public and political attitudes. Brickman and Iyengar's two-dimensional model and McGraw's institutional model are applied. The first present the problem of attribution by relation between the person and society. It outlines 4 models — Individual Guardianship, Compensatory and Societal. The second describes 3 aspects of responsibility attribution — respondent superior, collective responsibility and personal responsibility. The content analysis is conducted on publications devoted to corruption scandals in four popular newspapers — Demokratsiya, Duma, Trud and Kapital for 1996 and 2000 years. The results outline specific tendencies toward responsibility attribution at the newspapers policy. These tendencies are related directly to the influence on public opinion.
*Език на статията: Български
СТАТУСИ И СТРУКТУРА НА НАЦИОНАЛНАТА ИДЕНТИЧНОСТ В ЮНОШЕСКА ВЪЗРАСТ
Красимира Байчинска, Савка Савова
Абстракт:
The purpose of this article is to present a research concerning national identity in adolescence. A short review of two basic trends in the research of national identity in the perspective of developmental psychology is presented. The research is based on the theoretical assumptions of psychosocial identity theory and its adherent the psychosocial identity status theory. We perceive national identity as a psychological structure which contains two dimensions: a degree of self-determination and activity of choice. We distinguish four statuses of national identity: achievement, foreclosure, diffusion, and moratorium. An attempt is made to explore the structure of every single identity status by its components: cognitive, affective, and behavioral.
Our data is indicative of the fact that in all observed groups (by sex, age, educational program, town), the dominant status is moratorium, and the salience of diffusion is the lowest one. We resume that we observe a national identity moratorium among Bulgarian adolescents, which is developmentally and contextually defined. Differences in the status structure are also observed.
*Език на статията: Български
ИНДИВИДУАЛНИ И СОЦИАЛНИ ФАКТОРИ ЗА ИЗБОР НА АКАДЕМИЧНА СПЕЦИАЛНОСТ – ТЕОРЕТИЧЕН АНАЛИЗ
Диана Боянова
Абстракт:
There is an "eclectic explanation" of the academic choice in the research literature today. It comprises individual structural and cultural factors that influence the subject choice in higher education. Here, a complex model is presented, which is based on Ajzen's theory of planned behavior and Jung, Mayers and Briggs' concept of psychological types. Examining these approaches in a complete explanatory behavioral model will provide a more explicit analysis of the personal, as well as social and structural premises of the academic choice. This is an attempt to answer the question whether the subject choice is an inertia from the traditional Bulgarian studiousness, or it is a specific behavioral model, namely an instrument for accomplishing goals, important for young Bulgarians in the context of the existing opportunity structure.
*Език на статията: Български
ВЛИЯНИЕ НА ДЕПРЕСИЯТА ВЪРХУ НАЧИНИТЕ ЗА СПРАВЯНЕ СЪС СТРЕСОВИ СИТУАЦИИ
Максимка Рашева
Абстракт:
The present study examines the influence of depression on coping styles. The results from correlational analyses indicate that depression is positively associate with following coping styles: focus on and venting of emotions, behavioral disengagement, wish to escape from other people, psychological escape, ruminative style of coping, reassurance seeking and denial of problem. The negative correlations among depression and positive reinterpretation, planning and active coping styles are observed. The one-way analyses of variance reveal the influence of depression on emotion-focused and maladjustment coping styles. There are significant differences in the extent of use of emotion-focused coping styles among non-depressed, mildly depressed, moderately depressed and severely depressed individuals.
*Език на статията: Български
АКТУАЛНА ИЛИ МЕДИЙНА РЕАЛНОСТ
Ергюл Таир
Абстракт:
Mass media influences human perceptions of the world. Large body of research demonstrated the ability of television to cultivate or construct viewers' social reality. This article investigates the perceptions about the actual and the media portrayed reality. For that purpose a sample of 461 persons was tested and no significant differences were found between the perceptions of these two types of realities. The results showed that the participants in the research depicted reality in various manners, using neutral as well as positive characteristics but mostly negative loaded descriptions.
*Език на статията: Български