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Институт за изследване на населението и човека
 
  • ПСИХОЛОГИЧНИ ИЗСЛЕДВАНИЯ
    PSIHOLOGICHNI IZSLEDVANIA
    PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH (in Bulgarian)
  •     
    ISSN 1311-4700 (Print)
    ISSN 2367-4563  (Online)

Година 8, Книжка 2 (2005)

ИНФОРМАЦИОННО-ПРОЦЕСУАЛНИТЕ МОДЕЛИ В ИЗУЧАВАНЕТО НА АГРЕСИВНОСТТА
Йоланда Зографова
Абстракт:
The information-processing models of Anderson and Bushman and of Huesmann and Dodge are presented. They belong to the most advanced models of contemporary research on aggression. Their characterisric features are juxtaposed, and a comparative analysis of information based research schemes and of personological concepts is attempted. Theoretical arguments for connecting the two models are presented, and a number of problems arising from some unclarified aspects of contemporary aggression models are discussed.
*Език на статията: Български
БЪЛГАРСКА ВЕРСИЯ НА ВЪПРОСНИКА НА А. БЪС И М. ПЕРИ ЗА ОЦЕНКА НА АГРЕСИЯТА
Пламен Калчев
Абстракт:
The paper presents the development of Bulgarian version of the Aggression Questionnaire (Buss & Perry, 1992). The sample includes 943 subjects from two age groups: (a) adolescents (705 6th-12th grade students; 35,7% males, 61,5% females, 2,8% missing); (b) undergraduate students (238 subjects; 19,3% males, 78,6% females, 2,1% missing). The exploratory factor analysis (PCA/Oblimin rotation) replicates the original 4-factor structure of the Questionnaire (Buss & Perry, 1992): Physical Aggression (number of items 9, Cronbach's 6=0,81); Verbal Aggression (N=5, 6=0,60); Anger (N=8, 6=0,77) and Hostility (N=7, 6 =65). The development trends of the components and the sex differences are also examined. Data supporting the construct-validity of the Questionnaire are gathered by several self-descriptions scales: The Dissipation-Rumination scale (Caprara, 1986); the Peer Victimization and Aggression Scale (Kalchev, 2003)\ the Socialization Scale (Gough, 1994) and short version of the Coolidge Axis II Inventory (Coolidge, 1993; Kalchev 1997). Finally, a "typology" of the aggressors, based on the pattern of the components extracted, is briefly discussed.
*Език на статията: Български
ЛИЧНОСТНИ ОСОБЕНОСТИ И СТИЛ НА ВЗЕМАНЕ НА РЕШЕНИЕ
Румяна Божинова, Елиана Пенчева
Абстракт:
The aim of this article is to present a study on the relationship between decision making style ("activity-decisiveness" and "individual responsibility" according to Franken) and psychological type (according to Jung) on the basis of 350 subjects at the age of 18 — 60, with different professional orientation — technical, humanitarian and sport It is established that the style "activity-decisiveness" is essentially connected with the following psychological type dimensions — Extraversion, Intuition, Feeling and Perception. The influence of Perception is the most significant one. The relation of the style "individual responsibility" is more limited — its most clear expression is with the function Thinking. Some differences are registered in the manifestation of these tendencies by gender, age and professional orientation.
*Език на статията: Български
ВАЛИДНОСТ И ФАКТОРНА СТРУКТУРА НА ТЕМПЕРАМЕНТОВИЯ И ХАРАКТЕРОВИЯ ВЪПРОСНИК (TCI) ПРИ БЪЛГАРСКАТА ПОПУЛАЦИЯ
Красимир Калинов, Вихра Миланова, Асен Жабленски
Абстракт:
This research aims at studying both internal validity and factor structure of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) in its Bulgarian version. TCI consists of forced-choice items. It is invented as a result of Cloninger's biosocial model and should be completed personally. TCI is translated into Bulgarian language and has been applied to a sample of 843 respondents, representative of the healthy Bulgarian population (over 15 years old). Internal validity is studied by means of Cronbach's а-coefficient. Cloninger's model subsumes 7 dimensions. In order to determine to what extent this model is adapted to the Bulgarian population factor analysis by oblique rotation is performed. In addition cluster analysis is carried out in order to determine how the separate scales group together. Almost all of the scales and subscales show high internal consistency, corresponding to the most results published in other countries. Mean values and standard deviations obtained are also similar to the ones already published. In the Bulgarian sample the studied factor structure consists of 7 dimensions: 4 of temperament and 3 of character. This structure reveals a behaviour similar to the one described by Cloninger in the American population.
*Език на статията: Български
ПСИХОЛОГИЧЕН ПРОЧИТ НА УВОДНИТЕ МАТЕРИАЛИ ЗА ТЕРОРИСТИЧНИТЕ СЪБИТИЯ В САЩ ОТ 11 СЕПТЕМВРИ 2001 В РУСКАТА ПРЕСА: III. ВЕСТНИК „ИЗВЕСТИЯ" - „ВОЙНА СЪС СЯНКА”
Толя Стоицова, Росица Георгиева, Николай Бавро, Силвия Цветанска, Антоанета Христова и Бистра Мизова
Абстракт:
In the present article we use again the methodology constructed by our Bulgarian-American team in our efforts to analyze the articles from Russian newspaper "Izvestia" from social, phenomenological and psycholinguistic point of view. This methodology includes five major points: (1) The number and pattern of the editorials relating to the attack and its aftermath; (2) The literary styles in which the editorials are written; (3) The nature and number of historical references used; (4) The specific figures of speech noted as salient, and (5) The overall structure of themes emerging from the year-long period of editorial reflection.
We are discussing the results obtained by the analysis of Russian newspaper's "Izvestia" articles. Part of the data is close to those we have received for the Bulgarian newspaper "Sega". For example, in the Russian newspaper are cited many historical facts — historical references, from Russian close and distant past. Also there are differences — the articles from "Izvestia", discussing terrorist acts in the US from September 2001 are more detailed, e.g. longer than those in Bulgarian prints. Often they are illustrated by interviews of famous people or citizens asked on the streets.
*Език на статията: Български
ФУНКЦИОНАЛНО-ИНТЕГРАТИВНИ ТЕНДЕНЦИИ ПРИ РЕАЛИЗИРАНЕ НА ЗАЩИТНИ МЕХАНИЗМИ
Васил Мадолев
Абстракт:
The mechanisms of defense are activated to block the process of building awareness of one's own self or of a thought or action which could impress the feeling of incapacity or anxiety. Those mechanisms form a system whose main aim is to support the mental balance.
Clinical data evidence prove that those mechanisms do not appear separately doing the defensive process but are interconnected. In this study this psychoanalytical thesis in subject to empirical verification. The results achieved show that the defensive mechanisms form functional syntheses. The functional connecting and grouping of light mechanisms is unconscious and takes place at different levels. Each of the discovered function syntheses supports in a specific way the processing of devaluating data and the increase of the stability of defensive process.
*Език на статията: Български
ВЛИЯНИЕ НА ПОЛА И ВЪЗРАСТТА ВЪРХУ ЦЕННОСТНАТА СИСТЕМА НА СЪВРЕМЕННИЯ БЪЛГАРИН
Красимира Байчинска, Магдалена Гарванова
Абстракт:
The aim of the article is to reveal the influence of sex and age on the significance of value categories, dimensions and interests. The results of the study show that men attribute greater importance to values of self-enhancement and openness to change that expressed the individualistic motivation. On the contrary, the values of self-transcendence and conservatism that stand for the collectivistic motivation are more important for women. Analysis of age dynamics of value system reveals a tendency towards increase of collectivistic resp. decrease of individualistic motivation with age. An attempt to explain sex and age differences in value priorities of contemporary Bulgarian is also made.
*Език на статията: Български
ВЛИЯНИЕ НА ЛИЧНОСТНИТЕ ОСОБЕНОСТИ ВЪРХУ ВЪЗПРИЕМАНЕ НА АКТУАЛНАТА И МЕДИЙНАТА РЕАЛНОСТ
Ергюл Таир
Абстракт:
The aim of this study was to explore the role of the personal optimism/ negative expectations, anxiety, and aggressiveness in the process of perceiving the actual and the media portrayed reality. For that purpose a sample of 461 persons was tested and no significant differences were found between the perceptions of these two types of realities. However, there are differences in the perceptions of reality according to the various personal characteristics. On the one hand, the results concerning the aggressiveness are manifold and can be a basis for diverse interpretations. On the other hand, personal pessimism and high anxiety contribute to the formation of mostly negative perceptions of reality.
*Език на статията: Български
ЛИНГВИСТИЧНИ МОДЕЛИ ПРИ ДЕЦА СЪС СПЕЦИФИЧНИ ЕЗИКОВИ НАРУШЕНИЯ И ДЕЦА С НОРМАЛНО ЕЗИКОВО РАЗВИТИЕ
Наталия Кантарова
Абстракт:
The present article presents an empiric study of the personal development of children with specific language disorders of upper preschool age and early school age. The focus is on the data processing method — the method of fuzzy composition logic conclusion on the basis of fuzzy logic. Finally there are deduced linguistic models of personal specific characters of children with specific language disorders and of children with normal language development.
*Език на статията: Български
ПОЛОВА СПЕЦИФИКА И ВЪЗРАСТОВА ДИНАМИКА НА ЮНОШЕСКАТА САМООЦЕНКА ПРИ ДВА НАЧИНА ЗА НЕЙНОТО ОПЕРАЦИОНАЛИЗИРАНЕ
Ирина Георгиева
Абстракт:
In this article is presented an examination of the general self-evaluation of adolescents in high school. The study is based on two different approaches typical for the examination of general self-evaluation: first, general evaluative assertions for one's own personality: second, summing up all the self-evaluations of particular characteristics of the individual
I identify three factors or dimensions of self-evaluation — personal effectiveness, social purposefulness and ethics of the subject, and further, examine to what extent they interact with sex and age have on the level of general self-evaluation and its dimensions. The results empirically confirm the thesis that the methods used here cover particular sides of the phenomenon general self-evaluation. I found out that the dimension social purposefulness mostly relates to the phenomenon of general self-evaluation of personality.
*Език на статията: Български