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Институт за изследване на населението и човека
 
  • ПСИХОЛОГИЧНИ ИЗСЛЕДВАНИЯ
    PSIHOLOGICHNI IZSLEDVANIA
    PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH (in Bulgarian)
  •     
    ISSN 1311-4700 (Print)
    ISSN 2367-4563  (Online)

Година 8, Книжка 3 (2005)

СЪВРЕМЕННИ ИЗСЛЕДВАНИЯ В ОБЛАСТТА НА ОРГАНИЗАЦИОННАТА ПСИХОЛОГИЯ В ИНСТИТУТА ПО ПСИХОЛОГИЯ И УНИВЕРСИТЕТА В СКОПИЕ, МАКЕДОНИЯ
Елисавета Сардцоска
Абстракт:
The report is designed in two parts. The first very brief provides information on the formation, operation and celebrating the anniversary of the Macedonian Institute of Psychology, namely the 30th anniversary of its establishment at the University of Skopje. Surprisingly, in addition to research, the staff of the Institute is actively involved in the training of students in psychology at the University of Skopje.
The second part of the report presents the main results of the last research project in Organizational Psychology, conducted under the direction of Dr. Sardtsoska in which they participated as faculty and students from the Institute of Psychology in Skopje.
*Език на статията: Английски
ВРЪЗКА МЕЖДУ АГРЕСИВНОСТ И ТЪРСЕНЕ НА УСЕЩАНИЯ ПРИ АКТИВНО СПОРТУВАЩИ
Димитрина Фенерова, Цвета Мишева, Васил Илиев
Абстракт:
The paper focuses on the idea of interconnectedness between aggression and sensation seeking. The level of sensation seeking and aggression of 152 sportsmen is assessed and the established correlations are discussed. On the basis of the obtained results we stress on the importance of sport as a factor, influencing the level and the way of expression of aggressive tendencies. We summarize the possibilities for future research and dwell on the possibility to use sport as a preventive means for coping with the aggression in modern society.
*Език на статията: Български
ВЛИЯНИЕ НА ЛИЧНОСТНИЯ ОПТИМИЗЪМ И НЕГАТИВИСТИЧНИТЕ ОЧАКВАНИЯ ВЪРХУ ВЪЗПРИЕМАНЕТО HA НЕГАТИВНИ МЕДИЙНИ СЪОБЩЕНИЯ
Ергюл Таир
Абстракт:
The aim of this study was to explore the role of the personal optimism and negative expectations in the process of perceiving the negative mass media messages about natural disasters (earthquake). For that purpose a sample of 265 persons was tested and some differences were found in the perceptions of messages according to the personal characteristics. Optimism is associated with more positive anticipations. Negative expectations are, on the one hand, a base for negative outcomes and, on the other hand, related to repressive affective style.
*Език на статията: Български
ОПТИМИЗЪМ И САМОКОНТРОЛ - НЕЗАВИСИМИ ИЛИ ВЗАИМОСВЪРЗАНИ ЛИЧНОСТНИ ПАРАМЕТРИ
Цвета Мишева
Абстракт:
The paper presents a psychological research based on the idea of M. Rosenbaum that "people who tend to use the optimistic explanatory style of events are more likely to judge the unexpected problems in their lives in a way that encourages self-controlling behavior" (M. Rosenbaum, 1990).
66 sportsmen, practising different sports were accessed using "Method for measurement of generalized expectancies for outcome valence (optimism and negative expectations)" (A. Velichkov, M. Radoslavova, M. Rasheva, 1993) and "Scale for assessment of self-control" (M. Rosenbaum, adapted by M. Georgiev, 2001). The paper summarizes the correlations among the studied parameters, based on the gender, sport and qualification of the sportsmen. Based on the obtained data we conclude that the relation optimism — negative expectations — self-control varies depending on the qualification of the sportsmen and the characteristics of the environment in which the specific sport is practised.
*Език на статията: Български
ТРАНСФОРМАЦИЯТА НА ЦЕННОСТИТЕ В БЪЛГАРИЯ В СИТУАЦИЯТА НА СОЦИАЛНА ПРОМЯНА
Магдалена Гарванова
Абстракт:
The purpose of this article is to outline both the character and direction of transformation of values of businessmen, students and teachers, and to reveal the specialties of contemporary Bulgarian cultural value model in the situation of social change. The analysis of empirical and theoretical studies shows that value priorities of these socio-professional groups and the socio-cultural model are described as ambivalence of individual and collective interests. However, the significance of individual-oriented values has increased in the groups of businessmen, students and teachers and in the macro-social frame as a whole in the process of social reforms in our country.
*Език на статията: Български
АЗ-КОНЦЕПЦИЯТА КАТО ФАКТОР ЗА ФОРМИРАНЕ НА АДИКТИВНО ПОВЕДЕНИЕ
Мария Белчева
Абстракт:
At the contemporary stage of development of psychology an increase of interest for studying the crises in the individual, social and ethno-cultural identity has been observed. On individual basis the achievement of psychosocial identity by the individual means that he/she should have a realistic Self-Concept, which at the same time includes the physical, cognitive, emotional and social mastering of the environment and social recognition within the framework of society. The Self-Concept of personality can be presented as a cognitive system, which functions as a regulator of the behaviour with respect to the social environment. The Self-Concept furthers the achievement of inner co-ordination of personality, which is actually the feeling of existing as a complete Self connected with the others and at the same time different from them. It is well-known that the high degree of differentiation of such components of the Self-Concept as the Real Self Image and the Ideal Self Image may lead to depression or to an "escape from reality" determined by the unattainability of the ideal.
The present report gives some possibilities for realization of the Ideal Self Image in a communication, mediated by the global information network called Internet, as a factor for addictive behaviour. One of the types of behaviour, realized through the Internet communication, which are analysed is Internet addiction. The actuality of studying the role of Self-Concept for forming Internet addiction is determined by the insufficient research on the regulative role of identity regarding non chemical behavioristic dependencies as well as by the practical significance of the studying of the phenomenon Internet addiction.
*Език на статията: Български
ВЛИЯНИЕ НА ЛИЧНОСТОВАТА ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКА „ТЪРСЕНЕ НА УСЕЩАНИЯ" ЗА РАЗВИТИЕ НА АДИКТИВНО ПОВЕДЕНИЕ
Соня Будева
Абстракт:
The article presents relationships between sensation seeking and drug addiction. This is the personal trait, which is describing like "seeking of varied, novel, and complex sensations and experiences".
Drug addiction is associate with personal vulnerability. The people who misuse with drugs demonstrated higher rates of impulsivity, risk taking, emotional instability. These dimensions of personality have a strong relation with sensation seeking and they are very similar.
The material review the sensation seeking like personality risk factor for substance use and misuse. It is new view in etiology of drug addiction.
*Език на статията: Български
ИНДИВИДУАЛНИ И КОНТЕКСТУАЛНИ ФАКТОРИ ЗА ИЗБОР НА АКАДЕМИЧНА СПЕЦИАЛНОСТ ПРИ ФИНЛАНДСКИ СТУДЕНТИ ПО БИЗНЕС НАУКИ
Диана Боянова
Абстракт:
Contemporary approaches toward academic choice comprise individual, structural and cultural influences, thus proposing an "eclectic explanation" of the choice of specialty. The proposed explanatory model is integrative in its' essence. It incorporates two comprehensive theories, which have proved to be reliable frameworks in explaining, and also predicting human behavior. The first one is the theory of psychological type, and the second one — theory of planned behavior. Results reported here are based on a sample of 152 Finnish business students, who completed Myers-Briggs Type Indicator form F (MBTI; validated Finnish version), and a questionnaire based on Ajzen's theory. The incorporation of those two approaches provides us with more complete explanation of specialty choice, based on the interaction between individual, social and structural influences, which facilitate or hamper the accomplishment of one's academic choice.
*Език на статията: Български
ВАЖНОСТ НА ЦЕЛИТЕ В ЖИВОТА, ОЦЕНКА НА ШАНСОВЕТЕ ЗА ТЯХНОТО ПОСТИГАНЕ И ВЛИЯНИЕТО ИМ ВЪРХУ СУБЕКТИВНОТО БЛАГОПОЛУЧИЕ ПРИ БЪЛГАРСКИ СТУДЕНТИ
Борян Андреев
Абстракт:
The aim of the present study is to analyse the importance of life goals factors as well as the chance of their achievement among Bulgarian university students.
Statistical data analysis has revealed a four-factor structure of goal importance: life skills, positive social image, responsibility to the world and the others, and spirituality and religion. It is shown that responsibility to the world and the others is the most important factor compared to the other ones. For females, all factors are more significant than for males.
A comparison is also made with regard to the academic specialty. Results have shown that among students in geography religion has a negative influence on personal happiness. In addition, life skills factor impacts positively on personal happiness among students in psychology, pedagogy and engineering.
*Език на статията: Български
ФЕНОМЕНЪТ КОРУПЦИЯ ПРЕЗ ПРИЗМАТА НА СОЦИАЛНО-ПСИХОЛОГИЧНАТА ПЕРСПЕКТИВА
Валерия Витанова
Абстракт:
This article represents a theoretical model, which contains the social and social-psychological patterns of corruption. It will serve as a basis of an already planned cross-cultural investigation (between Bulgaria and Colombia) whose objective is to discover and confirm the sociopsycholgical roots of corruption.
The analyses of this phenomenon research the sources of corrupt behavior in the individuals, through the mechanism valid for the social interaction: the theory of social exchange, the perception of the individual about financial resources, the importance of the personal patterns as identity, personal status, subjective perception of well-being (satisfaction), predisposition "individual versus collective" and the important influence of culture through the way that this one determinate the personal values. All this factors explain how this problem is represented in the social life of all societies.
*Език на статията: Български
ВЛИЯНИЕ НА МЕДИИТЕ ВЪРХУ ФОРМИРАНЕТО НА ОБРАЗА ЗА СОБСТВЕНОТО ТЯЛО
Анна Александрова
Абстракт:
Psychological research proves the significant role of negative body-image on the development of eating disorders and low body-esteem. The media are portrayed as an influence key factor by popularizing sociocultural norms (body ideals). Media influence increases with the raise of attention payed on body-image issues and sending gender-specific messages. Changes in body ideals are following a negative direction towards extremely thin female body and extremely muscular male body, thus moving away from reality. Of particular interest are the psychological mechanisms underlying the increase in the behavioral tendency for body change in the direction of the prevailing ideal (dieting, eating disorders, anabolic steroids use).
*Език на статията: Български
СОЦИАЛНО-ПСИХОЛОГИЧЕСКИ И ПЕДАГОГИЧЕСКИ КОМПОНЕНТИ НА МЕХАНИЗМИТЕ ЗА РОДИТЕЛСКИ КОНТРОЛ В СЕМЕЙСТВОТО
Ралица Методиева
Абстракт:
The family and the parents in particular are the main factor of socialization and education of the children. They are also agents of social control. The parent control is an important mechanism for regulation of children s behavior but there is also educational and socialization influence. The control and effect mechanisms in the parent — children relationships have their own socio-psychological and educational core and structure. It comprises the contents, characteristics, the style of the relationships and communication in the family; the parent authority, the roles and expectations; the family social attitudes; the system of norms, values and rules; the composition of educational means, methods and techniques. The family control system issue is particularly important today, because of the increasing number of juvenile's deviance and delinquency.
*Език на статията: Български
АГРЕСИЯТА-БАРИЕРА В МЕЖДУЛИЧНОСТНОТО ОБЩУВАНЕ
Бистра Мизова, Диана Бакалова
Абстракт:
The problem of aggression in communication and interpersonal relations is current for the Bulgarian society after some tragical events related to the manifestation of violence and hostility by youngsters to peers in the recent years. Both aggression and hostility pose grave barriers to interpersonal communication in the context of formal and informal interactions among people.
Series of psychological researches that we have carried out during the period 2001-2003 verify some theoretical and empirical patterns, so that they outline a specific perspective in the field of social psychology, one that refers to the study of etiology, mechanisms and forms of aggression in the process of communication. We hereinafter discuss the nature, functions and definite manifestations of verbal and physical, active and passive, direct and indirect forms of aggression in interpersonal communication. By means of the phenomenological approach here are described and analyzed the so-called aggressive styles of communication, as we have examined the relations among particular verbal and nonverbal patterns of communication and some determinants of aggressive behaviour.
*Език на статията: Български
ЛИДЕРСКИ СТИЛОВЕ ВЪВ ВОЕННАТА ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯ. ТЕОРЕТИЧНИ АСПЕКТИ И КРИТЕРИИ ЗА ЕФЕКТИВНОСТ
Светлана Райчева
Абстракт:
The military leadership is one of the crucial factors for effective functioning of army organization. It could be defined as a process of influencing subordinates to accomplish the mission by providing purpose, direction and motivation.
The practice shows that it is not enough to have power and authority in to manage activity. It is neccessary to apply effective operative leader styles, not only successful professional and manage realisation of the millitary troops, which take command posts.
In connection with this the commanders of direct level in Bulgarian Army were extracted opinions about effective commandship, by method of focus groups.
The general conclusions from the separated groups allow to define the basic measures for assessment of commander's effectiveness. They have been separated in to seven main areas on the professional activity of the commander in peacetime.
*Език на статията: Български
МОТИВАЦИЯ ЗА УСПЕХ В КАРИЕРАТА И ВРЪЗКАТА Й С ОРИЕНТАЦИЯТА КЪМ БЪДЕЩЕТО
Ружа Драганова
Абстракт:
The purpose of the report is to present the theoretical background of the motivation for success in a working environment and its relation to the orientation to the future as an individual characteristic. The practical application of the topic is in the field of organizational psychology and human resources management.
*Език на статията: Български
РОЛЯТА НА ЕМОЦИОНАЛНАТА КОМПОНЕНТА В ПЕРЦЕПЦИИТЕ НА ИНДИВИДИТЕ ЗА ОРГАНИЗАЦИОННАТА ПРОМЯНА
Ирина Стойнова
Абстракт:
The main inspiration for making this transaction comes together with the current need to focus on the pressure coming from the new economic realities, emerging from the process of forthcoming incorporation of our country to European Union. Bulgarian business and non-governmental organizations, public institutions and state departments will have to change: to change their working strategy and strategy priorities, their management style, their technology of work, etc. Although the practitioners in the field of management often support the idea that one organizational change is useful in short-term plan, we cannot neglect the conclusion that there are a lot of changes which face people in organizations who prefer old technology rather than the new one, like better "the old way of doing things" rather than the new way. Another disturbing fact is that great number of organizational changes intended to improve organizational functioning, actually ends leaving organizations in unstable condition, decreasing their strength and puts organizations in crisis and even threatening their survival.
The mostly perfect planned organizational change is impossible to lead to effective outcomes without taking into account the human factor which interferes with the impact of any organizational change — the personal determinants namely. One of the dominated, but poorly examined phenomena of the organizational change is that the change first is needed to occur inside the individual, to be supported on individual level and subjective meaning of change to be given in order the change to take place in the context of formal organization. Although many of the practitioners of management and the specialists in the field of organizational change have gained good knowledge about the best way for planning and implementing any organizational change, they are still poorly equipped in dealing with the organizational impact on individuals in work environment.
*Език на статията: Български
МЕЖДУКУЛТУРНО СРАВНЕНИЕ НА БАРИЕРИТЕ ПРЕД ПРОФЕСИОНАЛНОТО РАЗВИТИЕ НА ЖЕНИТЕ В БЪЛГАРИЯ И ПОЛША
Соня Драгова
Абстракт:
The aim of the present research is to identify and compare those factors which hinder career development of women in Bulgaria and Poland. Reasons, which cause problems to career development are described in the literature as barriers or constrains at individual, family, organizational and social levels. Transition in the Eastern European countries from centralized planning to market economy has a strong effect on work status of women and put to the test their professional development. In spite of these common trends in contemporary situation in Bulgaria and Poland, we expected some cross-cultural differences in perception and assessment of different types of barriers to finding a job and career advancement, caused by the historical and cultural specificity and specific conditions of political and economic transitions in both countries.
*Език на статията: Български
ПРОБЛЕМИ НА ИЗБОРА НА ПРОФЕСИЯ ОТ УЧЕНИЦИТЕ, ЗАВЪРШВАЩИ СРЕДНО ОБРАЗОВАНИЕ
Вергилия Грънчаров
Абстракт:
Occupation choice and adjustments to it are important and fateful moment in the life of everybody. They are changed in every society. With a view to this rapid development of our present we have decided to research the new dimensions of motives and the process of occupation choice and what kind of problems have they raised to pupils finished secondary-school. Essential problem by occupation choice is the lack of wish to participate in educational or out-of-school forms of work.
*Език на статията: Български
ПОЛОВО-РОЛЕВИ СТЕРЕОТИПИ И ПРОФЕСИОНАЛНА КАРИЕРА НА ЖЕНИТЕ МЕНИДЖЪРИ
Виктория Недева
Абстракт:
In our world, life goes faster, the flow of information increases, so stereotypes acquire a greater importance for the normal function of the society and the individual who is part of it. The way of emerging of sex role stereotypes and their basic characteristics are analyzed. An accent is put on specificities of one of the most popular stereotypical subtypes — that of "women managers". A review is presented of series of empirical studies, which reveal the influence of sex role stereotyping on the attitude toward professional career of women on leading positions in the organizational hierarchy.
*Език на статията: Български
СОЦИОБИОЛОГИЧНАТА ПАРАДИГМА КАТО ТЕОРЕТИЧНА OCHOBA HA СОЦИАЛНИТЕ НАУКИ
Калин Янев
Абстракт:
In the present expose the socio-biological paradigm is expounded as a powerful and at the same time rejected tool for analyzing of social phenomena. The evolutionary psychology is not a particular field of research but a way of perceiving the psychological constructs which can be applied to almost every one of them. The fundaments of the paradigm are explained: gene selection, kin-altruism, evolutionary stable strategies, reciprocal altruism, theories of reproductive behavior.
The emphasis is laid on the application of the biological determinism and reductionism of the evolutionary psychology in the social sciences and especially on the numerous objections (most of them related to the "nature vs nurture" discussion). The unpopularity of the socio-biology in Bulgaria is mentioned as a specific problem — reactive rejection of every kind of materialistic approaches, contradiction with the fashionable psychodynamic theories and the applied psychology.
*Език на статията: Български
СЪСТОЯНИЕ И РАЗВИТИЕ НА ПОТРЕБНОСТНО-МОТИВАЦИОННАТА СФЕРА ПРИ ДЕЦА В ДОВДЛРГ
Теодора Атанасова
Абстракт:
In this report we're talking about the ways of satisfying the need-motivational sphere of children growing up in orphanages. We're making a comparative analysis between two groups of children growing up in and out of family background in the ages 11-15.
*Език на статията: Български
КАТЕГОРИЗАЦИЯ НА СУПЕРОРДИНАТНИ КЛАСОВЕ С ДВУИЗМЕРНИ ОБРАЗИ И ТРИИЗМЕРНИ ОБЕКТИ ПРИ ДЕЦА НА ВЪЗРАСТ ОТ 3 ДО 4 ГОДИНИ
Натали Досева
Абстракт:
In this paper we present two experiments with free classification method studying 3-to 4-year-old children's ability to form categories at global or "superordinate" level of visual representation of objects and pictures. For this purpose we use 2-dimensional images (pictures of objects) and 3-dimensional images (models of real objects). We present 4 categories items — fruits, animals, furniture and vehicles — all of them are familiar objects for children. In the first experiment, 10 children were tested with 2-dimensional images of objects in first session and after 10 days in second session they were tested within 3-dimensional models too. In Experiment 2, other 13 children were tested with 2-dimensional images and 3-dimensional models in one session, in the same day (we search priming effect).
The results of the two experiments revealed that children can form superordinate classes under similarity features, but this is very individual process and in second experiment the children classify 2-dimensional images under color similarity and it suggests that they have not complete internal representation of these images. When were presented 3-dimensional models, the priming effect supported children to form global categories. Analyses of results show that 3- and 4-year-old children associate different images and models of the objects with home.
*Език на статията: Български
ДЖ. ЛЕЙКОВ И М. ДЖОНСЪН: ТЕОРИЯТА ЗА КОНЦЕПТУАЛНАТА МЕТАФОРА ЗА ПРОЦЕСА НА РАЗРЕШАВАНЕ НА ПРОБЛЕМИ
Добрина Василева
Абстракт:
The article presents G. Lakoff and M. Johnson's conceptual metaphor theory. The text begins with the theoretical principles of the authors, who label themselves "second generation cognitivists". Then the assumptions of the conceptual metaphor theory itself are presented, followed by a discussion of the metaphors used to describe problem solving (the problem is a body of water, the problem is a locked container for its solutions, etc.). The article ends with a brief recount of the types of proof for the validity of the theory and some ideas on how the theory can appear on the agenda of psychologists in Bulgaria.
*Език на статията: Български
СТИМУЛИРАНЕ НА ДИВЕРГЕНТНОМИСЛОВНИТЕ СПОСОБНОСТИ ПОСРЕДСТВОМ ХУМОР В ДЕТСКАТА ГРАДИНА
Ася Велева
Абстракт:
The key significance of creativity to personal health, success and happiness suggests that any possibility to promote its development with young people should be employed. The relation between humor and creativity is such a possibility. When the three aspects of that relation (product, process and personal characteristics) are analyzed, one can see the position of the humor among creativity development tools particularly appropriate for little children.
The theoretical analysis shows that humor belongs to the field of creativity as it contains the main elements of creation. This conclusion was the basis of originating creativity training model, where children's divergent thinking skills were stimulated by assigning the task of playing games producing funny original effects. The promising future of such an approach is predetermined by the fact that the humor stimulates the creative capabilities of a person to generate original ideas without necessarily basing them on formal logics. That makes teaching creativity accessible to small children (at preschool age), while most of the conventional creativity-encouraging methods are hard to use with them.
*Език на статията: Български
ИЗСЛЕДВАНЕ НА КОНОТАТИВНИТЕ ЗНАЧЕНИЯ НА КРАТКИ ТОНАЛНИ РЕДИЦИ С ПОМОЩТА НА СЕМАНТИЧЕН ДИФЕРЕНЦИАЛ
Николай Рачев
Абстракт:
The semantic differential — a method introduced by Osgood et al. (1957) was designed to measure the connotative meaning of the stimulus material (verbal as well as nonverbal). Arguably, it is based on "cross-modality stimulus equivalence". Thus the method seems applicable to research of "iconic sources of emotion" in music, reflecting formal relationships between musical and extra-musical events, based on shared expressive features (Sloboda & Juslin 2001).
Searching for "the systematic symbolism underlying the expressiveness of music" (Hevner 1936), a form of semantic differential was specially designed to explore the connotations of an isolated musical component — the mode. For this purpose, nine different modes were selected and played as well as nine short melodies, based on the modes in question. The musical stimuli were exposed to an auditory of students without formal musical training. Factor analysis of data differentiated three factors, named "Activity/Potency", "Synaesthesia" and "Emotional-Aesthetic Evaluation". This factor structure is similar in most aspects to those extracted in previous studies. Cluster analysis of musical stimuli revealed a tendency of grouping the tone sequences into two basic clusters, one represented mostly by modes (and their melodies) which are familiar in our culture, and the other — by the unnatural and unfamiliar ones. These initial results tend to reveal that, even at a relatively elementary level, there are consistent connotations of musical stimuli. Such results also support the hypothesis of existence of implicit knowledge for music elements which are familiar in the relevant cultural context.
*Език на статията: Български
ВЛИЯНИЕТО НА КУЛТУРАТА ВЪРХУ ЛИЧНОСТТА В ПУБЕРТЕТНА ВЪЗРАСТ И ВРЪЗКАТА С БЛАГОПОЛУЧИЕТО Й
Салех Ахмед Мубарак
Абстракт:
A human personality is formed in relation of biological and social factors. Culture determines the person's place in society. In the pre-sent study our task is to examine the influence of the environment (material domestic, school and religious environment) over students' grades and over forming personality in puberty.
The notion "culture" in Arabian contents meanings as intelligence, ability etc. The culture in puberty has founding influence in Yemen. Religious culture is distributed by theologians.
The puberty is the period of sexual awakening of the individual, of transition from childhood to maturity. This heightens the interest to the problem. The research aims to reveal the influence of factors, such as conditions for studying, monthly family income, connections in school, and media of the teenager's personal peculiarity — motivation to study, subjective experience of prosperity, sexual education and motivation to have a family of his own. Prosperity is the center of attention when studying the influence of culture and religious culture over the personal peculiarities. Prosperity means subjective understanding of the success in development of the personality and domestic happiness.
Conclusions of the research show that culture plays a significant role in forming the personality of the teenager, of self-evaluating his own life as prosperous and of his school grades.
*Език на статията: Български
ПРЕДРАЗСЪДЪЦИ НА СТУДЕНТИ-ПЕДАГОЗИ КЪМ ПРЕДСТАВИТЕЛИ НА ЕТНИЧЕСКИТЕ МАЛЦИНСТВА В БЪЛГАРИЯ
Зорница Ганева
Абстракт:
Stereotypes and attitudes of students-pedagogues towards representatives of ethnic minorities in Bulgaria: Romanies and Turks, were examined from the point of view of the Theory of Social Representations. The relationship between stereotypes and attitudes in a manipulated social context: normal and of substitution, is investigated through free associations. The results show a relationship between beliefs and attitudes. The assessment by the minority groups is more positive in the normal context than in the context of substitution. The representatives of the Romany ethnos are more negatively assessed by the persons examined.
*Език на статията: Български
ПСИХОЛОГИЧЕСКИ ОСОБЕНОСТИ НА НАЦИОНАЛНАТА ИДЕНТИЧНОСТ НА БЪЛГАРСКИ И УКРАИНСКИ СТУДЕНТИ
Велислава Чавдарова
Абстракт:
National identity is a reflection of national self-awareness in behaviour and national character. Since students hold the traditional national characteristics, at the same time, not being burdened with the preceding realia, taboos, stereotypes and prejudices, their social and public passivity or activity is an indicator for the development and the current contents of national identity.
This research aims through comparative description of the formation phases and concrete expression of the national identity of Bulgarian and Ukrainian students to show the specific reflection of the long social transition on the national self-awareness and behaviour of the two sub-ethnic communities.
*Език на статията: Български
НАГЛАСИТЕ В ЙЕМЕН СПРЯМО ПСИХИЧНИТЕ ЗАБОЛЯВАНИЯ
Омар Мубарак Бамир
Абстракт:
The object of this study is to ascertain the adjustments in the Yemen society towards mental disorder and people who are affected with it. These adjustments are based on the knowledge of the illness's nature, causes and treatment. Another object of the study is also to reveal the society's attitude towards its relation with mentally deranged people.
The method used in the study — elaborated by the World Health Organization to apply with different cultures, consists in showing pictures to people affected with widespread mental disorders and reading the basic symptoms of each of them — oligophrenia, epilepsy, chronic schizophrenia, depression and paranoid schizophrenia. The method has been applied to 100 persons divided into 2 groups, the first one consists of 50 relatives of mentally deranged, and the second one — 50 students (boys and girls) of the University of Yemen.
The results of the study show that there is a relative similarity of the two groups1 adjustments toward the nature, causes and methods of treatment of mental diseases. The second group shows a better understanding of what causes epilepsy and oligophrenia which indicates a positive dependence between educational level and its influence over the adjustments. Both groups, as a whole, show negative attitude towards social communication with mentally deranged — teamwork, marriage, renting a house. On the contrary, the attitude is positive as far as treatment and recovery of mentally deranged is concerned. The study does not determine a statistical dependence in adjustments concerning mental diseases and factors such as age and sex.
A conclusion can be reached, that there is insufficient and contradictory knowledge of mental diseases which compels us to pose the question — what factors contribute to form such adjustments in society and what reasons, respectively — programs, must be elaborated in order to achieve a change in attitude with a view to a better understanding of mental diseases.
*Език на статията: Български
ПСИХОЛОГИЧЕН ТИП И ТРАНСФОРМАЦИОННО ЛИДЕРСТВО – СРАВНЕНИЕ МЕЖДУ ОЦЕНКИТЕ НА ПОДЧИНЕНИ И ЛИДЕРИ
Тина Хаутала
Абстракт:
This study focuses on the personality types, which have given themselves and/or got from subordinates, the highest points concerning transformational leadership. The high results (25% quartiles) were compared to the rest. Concerning leaders' own ratings of highly transformational leaders were ESTJ, ENFP, ENTJ, ENTP, ESFP and ESFJ. Subordinates' opinion indicated that those are ESFJ, ESTJ, ISTJ and ENTP. When comparing these subordinates' ratings with the leaders' own, the ISTJ, ENTJ, ENFP and ESTJ leaders do not have the same picture of themselves as their subordinates have of them.
Thus, these results indicate that there are differences with regard to how the different personality types perceive themselves and are perceived concerning transformational leadership. When looking at the results overall, leaders' self-ratings indicated that ENTJs are among the highest in transformational leadership. On the contrary, subordinates' appraisals indicated, that most transformational are ESFJ leaders. The comparison of subordinates' and leaders' ratings indicated that ENTJs tend to overrate themselves and ISTJ s to underrate themselves.
*Език на статията: Английски
ЦЕННОСТНИ ОРИЕНТАЦИИ НА УЧЕНИЦИ ОТ Р БЪЛГАРИЯ И Р ЙЕМЕН
Салем Ахмед Гуман
Абстракт:
The object of the present experimental study is to reveal the structure and dynamics of the value system of students from two societies, different in their culture and nature. As an object of comparison we have chosen students from the Republic of Bulgaria and from Republic of Yemen.
We have assigned ourselves a task to study the values orientations of high-school students (10th, 11th, 12th grade — 17—19 years old) from Republic of Bulgaria and Republic of Yemen and trace the values orientation distribution in each cultural extract and to accomplish a comparative analysis.
Within the range of the newly built cultural models we tried to present the actual individual value system of two societies, different in their essence and nature. The changes that take place in the value system are connected with deeper structural and functional alterations. In the two research extracts the core of the value systems contains the same value dominants. Common to all mankind values, such as love, health and vitality, personal and domestic happiness take the first three ring places in the hierarchical structure. Those are humanistic ideals and purposes, universal to all cultures.
Comparing the actual condition of the value system of the two studied groups, we obtained interesting results, which partially confirmed a hypothesis we had assumed in advance. In Bulgaria the first six instrumental values are cheerfulness, ambition, manners, bravery, independence and strong will. Ambition and manners are also in the leading places in Yemen. The Significance of vital priorities in the hierarchy such as "health and vitality", love and "personal and domestic happiness" confirm the fact, determined by many researchers of value problems, that these values are common to all mankind and universal to different socio-cultural conditions. The values, which enter the dominant core of Bulgaria's and Yemen's value system are the same, but arranged in a different way. With a view to the contents of these values, by studying people from two cultures, we determined several differences. An obvious one — the statistically significant difference in worth of value.
*Език на статията: Български
НАСИЛИЕТО СРЕЩУ ЖЕНИТЕ В РЕПУБЛИКА ЙЕМЕН
Ихлас Абдул Ракиб Саллам Ал-Шаргби
Абстракт:
The issue of violence against women in the Yemen Republic is treated. Violence in the family is difficult to be established and studied, as its acts remain hidden in the closed family. Using anthropological and sociological methods it is possible to differentiate two forms of violence against women: home and social violence. Direct and indirect causes of violence are presented in details. Indirect causes of violence refer to tribal structure, social and family interrelations and traditional socialization. Direct causes of violence include family quarrels, early marriages, family poverty and illiteracy. Violence against women reflect on their personality development and also on children's development.
*Език на статията: Български
ПРИВЛЕКАТЕЛНОСТ НА КОМПЮТЪРНИТЕ ИГРИ И ВЛИЯНИЕТО ИМ ВЪРХУ ПОВЕДЕНИЕТО В ЮНОШЕСКА ВЪЗРАСТ
Калин Цанов
Абстракт:
During the past years the specialists notice the significant part the computer games take in the life of the adolescents. According to a set of foreign studies about 60% of the teenagers play computer games and more than 30% of them become addicted to this activity. The inquiry carried out in Bulgaria confirmed to a great extent the above mentioned data. It is of interest to determine the basic kinds of computer games and the preferred ones, as well as to clarify the positive and negative aspects this activity leads. The present paper reviews the existing foreign investigations in this field and demonstrates the importancy of this topic in Bulgaria also.
*Език на статията: Български
ПОЛОВАТА СОЦИАЛИЗАЦИЯ НА 2,5 - 5-ГОДИШНИТЕ ДЕЦА, ОТГЛЕЖДАНИ В ИНСТИТУЦИЯ
Катя Крумова
Абстракт:
The problem of rising in and developing of the mental sex is very popular in our days. The mental sex is modulating in the family. The children who are growing up in the orphanage, how are they forming their mental sex? In this report we're trying to find some of the answers of this question.
*Език на статията: Български
ПСИХОЛОГИЧНИ МЕХАНИЗМИ И СПЕЦИФИКА В ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕТО НА МЕТОДИ ОТ АРТ-ТЕРАПИЯТА ПРИ СМУЩЕНИЯ В ХОДА НА СОЦИАЛИЗАЦИЯТА НА ДЕЦА, ЛИШЕНИ ОТ РОДИТЕЛСКИ ГРИЖИ
Десислава Стоянова
Абстракт:
The report presents the results of a correctional influence carried out with art therapy methods for restricting disorders in the socializations process with children brought up in entirely institutional environment. The typical and relatively frequent disorders in the emotional and behavioural sphere with a given social group are classified here. The applying of different art therapy effects are also discussed.
The results of the experimental group obtained after the check experiment presented a considerable rise in children's stage of social competence and decrease in the intensify of primary and secondary behavioural disorders.
Some therapeutical trends where the art therapy application is characterized by a particular effectiveness are outlined.
*Език на статията: Български
ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ НА МЕТОДИКАТА НА ТЕМАТИЧНО-АПЕРЦЕПТИВНИЯ ТЕСТ ЗА ИЗСЛЕДВАНЕ НА МИСЛОВНИ И АФЕКТИВНИ РАЗСТРОЙСТВА ПРИ ЛИЧНОСТИ С ШИЗОФРЕННО ЗАБОЛЯВАНЕ
Светозар Димитров
Абстракт:
Studying the psychic processes of schizophrenic people has a relatively low percentage in the general sphere of psychological studies of the personality. Reasons for this are twofold: on the one hand, the hard and pessimistic psychiatric diagnosis and, on the other hand, the psychological obstacles in construing the study of people, whose personality and Self-concept are in definition diffusive, chaotic, and unstructured. The Murray instrument TAT has the advantage of indirect procedure that facilitates and promotes disclosure of the hidden psychic contents, which are of great importance for the functioning of the studied person, however, which would very hard be traced out using the standard psychological methods.
*Език на статията: Български
БАТЕРИЯ ЗА ОЦЕНКА HA PAHHO ДЕТСКО РАЗВИТИЕ. ПРОЦЕДУРА ПО ВАЛИДИЗАЦИЯ
Надя Колчева
Абстракт:
The paper presents a test battery for assessment — (Developmental Assessment of Young Children — Judith Voress and Taddy Maddox). The DAYC consists of five subtests that measure different but interrelated developmental abilities. The battery, which is designed for use with children from birth through age 6 years, was built to measure the five areas of assessment mandated by IDEA: cognition, communication, social-emotional development, physical development, and adaptive behavior.
This instrument is a new one for Bulgaria. It is based on recent scientific formulations in the field of child development and deficits in mental development. A standardization procedure is in process. The paper discusses one of validation studies conducted and its results.
*Език на статията: Български
ИЗМЕРВАНЕ НА ЕТИЧНИЯ КЛИМАТ В ОРГАНИЗАЦИИТЕ
Атанас Русев
Абстракт:
The ethical climate is a construct, which is conceptualized by John Cullen and Bart Victor. In the process of its validation they developed the Ethical Climate Questionnaire. This article describes the pilot approbation of the Bulgarian version of ECQ. The approbation went through three steps — translation, administering the questionnaire and statistical analysis. The statistical analysis included reliability and factor analysis. The factor analysis produced 5 interpretable factors — instrumental, caring, service, independence and law, which closely match the previous findings concerning the factor structure of the questionnaire. Further on are discussed some methodological issues concerning the instrument as well as alternatives for measuring the ethical climate in organizations.
*Език на статията: Български