Institute for population and human studies
 
  • PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH (in Bulgarian)
    PSIHOLOGICHNI IZSLEDVANIA
    ПСИХОЛОГИЧНИ ИЗСЛЕДВАНИЯ
  •    
    ISSN 1311-4700    (Print)
    ISSN 2367-4563  (Online)
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Volume 9, Issue 1 (2006)

ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR: DEFINITION, MEASUREMENT AND DETERMINANTS
Snezhana Ilieva
Abstract:
In the study the main approaches to understanding organizational citizenship behavior are analyzed. The measured dimensions of organizational citizenship behavior are: altruism, compliance, obedience, participation and loyalty.
The differences in organizational citizenship behavior by hierarchy level, age and sex are established. The middle and top managers are less altruistic and helpful than their subordinates. Altruism and obedience increase with age. Loyalty is higher among women but their participation is lower in comparison to men.
Work attitudes influence dimensions of organizational citizenship behavior. Organizational commitment is a strong determinant of altruism, compliance, obedience and participation. Job involvement and satisfaction of working conditions also predict organizational citizenship behavior.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
PERSONALITY TYPOLOGY AT THE BULGARIAN SCHOOL-COMPRATIVE ANALYSIS
Eliana Pencheva, Eva Pdpdzova
Abstract:
The aim of the article is to compare the psychological type distribution between students’ sample and distributions of teachers’ and school principals’ sample. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is administered to 997 participants – 573 students at age 15-18, 308 teachers and 116 school principals. The data is processed with Self-Selection Ratio Type Table (SRTT).
The comparison between the three samples show that students differ by a specific configuration. Comparing to the teachers, more students show preference to Feeling (F), Sensing (S), Perception (P) and Extraversion (E). Comparing to the principals, they have stronger affinity to feeling (F) and Perception (P), and the differences are greater than these with the teachers. Two modal types are outlined in the students’ sample – ENFP and ESFP. In the light of psychological type model some opportunities for optimization of educational interactions are commented.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
QUALITY OF LIFE OF YOUNG EASTERN EUROPEAN MEN: NONCOMPETITIVE BODYBUILDING RELATED TO GENDER ROLE CONFLICT AND DEPRESSION
Liza Lukács, Ferenc Túry
Abstract:
Objective. We studied gender role conflict associated with depression and some psychological features of eating attitudes and behavior among 310 male military college students, who were either previously or are currently engaged in noncompetitive bodybuilding, in comparison with 170 male military controls.
Method. A demographic questionnaire, the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Gender Role Conflict Scale (GRCS) assessed all subjects.
Results. The results of the current study indicate that bodybuilders report greater levels of gender role conflict than controls. Significant associations were found between certain relations of gender role conflict and depression, and psychopathological characteristics of eating disorders.
Conclusion. This study suggests that young males engaged in bodybuilding may experience some gender role conflicts. Special attention must be paid to athletic body ideal in Eastern Europe as well.
*Language of the article: English
COMPARISON BETWEEN PARENTS AND TEACHERS IMAGES AND SELF-IMAGE TEENAGERS
Ivan Dimitrov
Abstract:
This cycle involved 1675 examined persons, among them 602 parents (35,9%), 378 teachers (22,6%), and 695 students-adolescents (41,5%). The same method was used towards all persons-The questionnaire of Paul Torrance of the “desired” or “ideal” child.
As a result of series of exploratory factor analysis we distributed 66 characteristics of the questionnaire of Torannce into five scales. There are:
  • 1. “Purposefulness and indipendence”,
  • 2. ”Attitude towards others”,
  • 3. ”Taking risk, playful, sociable”,
  • 4. ”Egocentrism and uncommunicative” and
  • 5. ”Motivation for examination, competence and achivements”.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
EVALUATION OF EFFECT OF THE STRESSOGENIC FACTORS ON CIVIL AND MUNICIPAL SERVANTS
Jeliazko Hristov
Abstract:
For examination of the intensity of the effect of the stressogenic factors on the civil and municipal servants, we investigated 500 persons working in 47 units at different levels of the administrative management. Four groups of factors have been examined, connected with the work characteristics and the relationship between work and way of life, ensuing from the interpersonal relationship and related to the changes in the labour sphere.
The intensity of the effect of the separate factors was evaluated through a coefficient of an average measured intensity of effect at the value of 0-1.
The following indexes of the observed units were used: sex, age at three periods, marital status, length of service at three periods, education, place of work /municipal, regional administration/, type of work /having direct or indirect contact with the citizens/, personal typology and locus of the exercised control.
The results received indicated that women experience stronger sressogenic influences than men; that these influences are more clearly marked at younger age, for persons with shorter length of service and for the married ones, in comparison with the employees who are not married.
The municipal servants are exposed to a stronger stressogenic influence in comparison with those working in the regional administration. The same applies for the employees having direct contact with the citizens, behaviour type A or using internal control for gaining command over the situation.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
TO MAKE COMPARISON OF CYRILIC ALPHABETH TACTUAL PERCEPTION IN SIGHTED AND NONSIGHTED PEOPLE
Yordanka Lalova, Encho Gerganov
Abstract:
The aim of the research is to obtain confusability matrices for Cyrillic letters in experiments for their identification by nonseeing and seeing people in a tactual perception task. It is supposed that these matrices contain important information about prototype relations in cognitive structures of the letters.
26 paid seeing people and 26 paid nonseeing people participated in a perception experiments for identification of Cyrillic letters in a tactual perception task. The confusability data were processed by the algorithms of cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling. The theory of Tversky about asymmetrical distances in psychological space was applied to reveal prototype Cyrillic letters in the correspondence pairs of letters.
Important finding of this study is that both the seeing and the nonseeing people make small number of errors when recognizing the Cyrillic letters in a tactual identification task. The Cyrillic letters with acute-angled component form well-defined structures in which the pair И–М is the most confused one. The letters with round components are confused more rarely. It is important to say that the Cyrillic letters Н и О are very salient prototypes. Maybe they play a crucial role in all aspects of cognitive processing of Cyrillic letters.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
EFFECTIVE APPROACHES TO CONFLICT RESOLUTION
Russanka Mancheva
Abstract:
The article tries to reveal different possibilities in using effective approaches in conflict resolution processes. Conflicts are presented as a process of contradictions and confrontations that disturbs interrelations among people. Special attention is paid to the so called constructive traits of the models discussed, which are defined as successful ones.
Negotiation, arbitrary and mediation processes are presented through the third party’s activity in conflict resolution. Presence, as well as communication skills of the third party, is the guarantee for a successful end of the negotiations.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
DIAGNOSISOF PERSONALITY DISORDERS. CONTEMPORARY DEVELOPMENT AND TENDENCY IN BULGARIA
Toni Donchev, Hristina Martinova
Abstract:
The category “personality disorders” has ill-defined borders and range over a large spectrum of characters and behaviors. Making diagnosis in this large category we are frequently influenced by our subjective and emotional positions or by so called “strong personality traits” that overgrow other specific personality characteristics. This circumstances enforce diagnostic instruments findings in the area of personality deviations.
We studied 457 people from three groups, randomly selected. The method of exploration was the WHO’s instrument - International Personality Disorders Examination. In this article we describe our experience with Bulgarian version of International Personality Disorders Examination and its potency to objectify expertise process.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
LANGUAGE PERFORMANCE OF THE MORPHOLOGICAL ABILITY OF CHILDREN WITH DISLEXIA TO EXPRESS PLURAL NOUNS
Еkaterina Todorova
Abstract:
The report represents a survey about language coding of regular and irregular forms of the plural nouns with children with dyslexia. This research is based on Chomsky's theory about language structure and on Slobin's theory about operating principles for the construction of language. There is a special focus on the language performance of the nouns in plural in Bulgarian language. An original experimental treatment study has been used to collect initial data. The data has been processed by using the SPSS statistical package (frequency distribution, analysis of two-dimensional distribution, ANOVA, MANOVA). The experimental results indicate that dyslexic children have a specific language behavior in the language performance of plural nouns. The results demonstrate usage of incorrect forms, e.g. over generalization errors, usage of non-existing phonetic rules, no clear distinction between the different forms of plural. These errors reveal not only specific language deficit in the investigated population, but also the mechanisms or strategies which young children use to acquire this part of Bulgarian grammar.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
TACTILE LETTER EXPLORATION IN CHILDREN WITH VISUAL IMPAIRMENT
Maria Velichkova, Polina Stoicheva, Daniel Georgiev
Abstract:
In this study we have dealt with children in their early ontogenetic period that is suitable for learning achievement. All the children participating in the study had various degrees of visual impairment from partial to complete (congenital) blindness. The left cerebral hemisphere in healthy people is dominant in regard to language function, while the right cerebral hemisphere dominates spatial processing. It was expected that children with visual impairment would benefit from domination of the right cerebral hemisphere when processing language information. It has also been established that success in letter recognition strongly depends on the strategy subjects use to explore the stimuli. Fifteen right-handed children aged 7 to 11 years were divided in three groups according to the degree of visual deficit - partially seeing, slightly blinded, and congenitally blinded. They had to actively touch and explore Cyrillic letters that have different spatial configuration. The results did not prove the predominance of the right cerebral hemisphere in children with visual deficit when processing letter stimulation.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
STEREOTYPES AND ATTITUDES TOWARDS MINORITIES IN BULGARIA
Hosse Valensia, Zornitsa Ganeva
Abstract:
The relationship between beliefs and attitudes, as well as different normative regulations when explaining stereotypes and prejudices towards the two most numerous ethnic groups in Bulgaria: Roma and Turks, were analysed. In the survey conducted, a stable correlation between beliefs and attitudes was established by application of the method of free word associations. Also, there is a more positive evaluation of minorities in the individual normative context than in the context of substitution. The different logic that metasystem exerts during the action of the cognitive operations was explained from the point of view of the Theory of Social Representations.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
GENDER ROLLS AND SEXIEST PREJUDICES
Petia Genkova, Stanka Momcheva
Abstract:
This study deals with sexism in post-communist communities by analyzing the case of Bulgaria. We are testing two hypotheses: we presume first that sexism in Bulgaria increase; second the social and political reforms in Bulgaria cause a change in sexist prejudices and gender rolls; As methodological basis, we are using the Old-Fashioned Scale, the Modern Sexism Scale (Swim, Aikin, Wayne & Hunter, 1995), and the Ambivalent Sexism Scale (Glick & Fiske, 1996). The accumulated data confirms the two hypotheses. The following results reflect the specific situation in a post communist community: threatened social and economic existence. Bulgarian women were forced to work before the social and political changes. Now, their role is often reduced to being mother and house-wife, so that they are losing their social independence.
This study deals with sexism in post-communist communities by analyzing the case of Bulgaria. We are testing two hypotheses: we presume first that sexism in Bulgaria increase; second the social and political reforms in Bulgaria cause a change in sexist prejudices and gender rolls; The accumulated data confirms the two hypotheses. The following results reflect the specific situation in a post communist community: threatened social and economic existence. Bulgarian women were forced to work before the social and political changes. Now, their role is often reduced to being mother and house-wife, so that they are losing their social independence.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian