Institute for population and human studies
 
  • PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH (in Bulgarian)
    PSIHOLOGICHNI IZSLEDVANIA
    ПСИХОЛОГИЧНИ ИЗСЛЕДВАНИЯ
  •    
    ISSN 1311-4700    (Print)
    ISSN 2367-4563  (Online)
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Volume 11, Issue 1 (2008)

”PSYCHOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION” – WAY OF DEVELOPMENT
Antoaneta Hristova
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
VALUE MODEL OF THE BULGARIAN CULTURE AND ITS CHANGES (1995-2005)
Krassimira Baytchinska
Abstract:
The aim of this article is to analyse the changes into value model of the Bulgarian culture within 10-year time interval – 1995-2005. Data from two empirical studies have been compared. The first has been carried out in 1995 – the beginning of the transition towards democratic society, the second one – in 2005 – an year before Bulgaria to become a member of EU. 483 teachers and 397 students re[presenting the conservative and modernizing trends into Bulgarian culture participated in the two studies. The results show that the value ideal of the teachers has not been changed considerably for the 10 year period and can be characterized as an egalitarian conservatism oriented to mastery. Value ideal of the students has been changed more considerably and show that a new dominant has been formed – that of autonomy values over conservative ones. In 1995 value ideal of the students was quite undifferentiated while in 2005 – it can be defined as egalitarian liberalism oriented towards mastery. Some predictions about the future changes have been also made.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
MEDIA VIOLENCE –SHORT-TERM AND LONG-TERM EFFECTS
Rumyana Bojinova, Ergyul Tair
Abstract:
This paper traced out the short-term and long-term effects of the violence presented in mass media. On the base of this point of view the stages of the process of developing permanent behavior tendencies ware outlined. Attention was paid to some aspects of the individual differecies in this process. The mechanisms of the influence of media presented violence according to the contemporary frame of reference were also considered. Finally, the inclusion of the individual differences in the proposed explanatory model was discussed.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
PERCEPTION OF CONTROL AND ADAPTATION TO CHRONIC ILLNESS
Maximka Rasheva
Abstract:
The concept of control is a important moderator and mediator within variety of domains of health and it is related to positive or improve health outcomes. The present study examines the interrelations between Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale form C (MHLC-C), social support, optimism/negative expectancies, coping styles and subjective well-being in patients with chronic illnesses. The demographic variables are examined with regard to their relation to locus of control. Influence of education on sub-scale “chance” is observed. The result indicate different patterns for inpatients and outpatients. Positive correlations between perceived and actually received social support, live satisfaction, internal locus of control and sub-scale “doctors” are established in inpatients. In out patients, the believes that doctors have control over their illness are associate with life satisfaction and perception of instrumental support. Negative correlations between sub-scale “doctors”, negative expectancies and depression are observed. The patients with high levels of optimism report mote personal control over their illness.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
FOUR-STATUS MODEL OF SOLVING THE INTIMACY CRISIS
Margarita Bakracheva
Abstract:
This article outlines operationalization of the sixth stage of Erik Erikson’s theory of epigenetic development – the intimacy crisis. Special focus is given to the relation between successful resolution of the identity crisis and intimacy achievement. Principles of assigning the intimacy statuses are presented. Author suggests implementation of four status model of intimacy, analogous to the four-status model of psychosocial identity.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
TENDENCIES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE NORMAL FEARS
Eliana Pencheva, Encho Gerganov, Eva Papazova, Georgi Karastoyanov
Abstract:
The aim of the study is to reveal the developmental pattern of normal fears during adolescence and youth according to their intensity and frequency. A total of 177 adolescents and young people aged between 16 and 40 years participated in the study.
Two identical inventories for assessing fear intensity and frequency, based on the results of a directive associative experiment were used. A Trait Scale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (adapted for Bulgarian conditions by D.Shtetinski and I.Paspalanov, 1989) was also administered. The results showed that the correlation between assessed fear intensity and frequency is statistically significant but moderate. The joint influence of fear intensity and frequency (the fear integral index) determines trait-anxiety. Girls’ fears are higher regarding the three dimensions: intensity, frequency and integral index. The frequency of fear declines with age during these two periods of the life cycle. The 10 most common fears for the total explored contingent are related to the category “bodily injury, illness and death”. Gender and age differences are observed with respect to the 10 most common fears.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
THE PROBLEM OF THE AGGRESSIVENESS – THE ADVANCE OF THE CONCEPTUAL SPHERE AND THE POSSIBILITIES OF ENLARGEMENT
Yolanda Zografova
Abstract:
A conceptual formulation of the nature of aggressiveness at two main subject levels – individual and social-group is presented. The possibility to enlarge the definition of aggression and to broaden the analysis of aggressiveness phenomena is based on the cognitive-behavioral conceptions, Tajfel’s ideas of social categorization and the cultural approach. The break of the social principles, norms and rules is analyzed as one of the main and common mechanisms active at both subject levels. Social concretization and the focus of the social-psychological research on the aspect of sociality of the individual manifestations as representing social groups and categories is regarded as an important direction of their analysis.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
THE JUSTICE BEHAVIOR – SITUATIONS, ATTRIBUTED CHARACTERISTICS AND MOTIVES (ETHNIC-COMPARISON)
Antoaneta Hristova
Abstract:
The article presents investigation on the differences related to basic characteristics of the notion “justice” among 3 ethnic groups in Bulgaria – Bulgarians with Bulgarian self-consciousness, Bulgarians with Turkish self-consciousness and Bulgarian gypsies. 124 investigated persons are included in research. Real worldly situation related to justice behavior are outlined. The attributed characteristics to the subject who have done the justice behavior are differentiated. The research distinguishes and the justice motives. The comparison results among the 3 ethnic groups indicates the necessity of different communication strategy in debates related to problems considered justice.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
THE IMAGE OF EUROPE: CAMPAIGN OF THE FIRST EURO PARLIAMENT VOTING IN BULGARIA REFLECTED BY THE NEWSPAPER SEGA
Bistra Mizova, Tolya Stoitsova
Abstract:
On the 20th of May, 2007 for the first time Bulgarians voted for their own representatives in Euro Parliament. This event arose many questions in the face of professionals. Analysis of media slogans, specific media information, the types of images formed by mass media, as well as questions like why Bulgarians were not motivated to vote and who win and who lost and why in this unique euro-voting for Bulgaria – all these problems appear to be extremely important issues for social psychologists. Month before the vote authors of this article started analyzing journalist materials of the Bulgarian newspaper Sega in their attempt to answer part of the mentioned questions.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
INTERDEPENDENCE BETWEEN PERCEPTION AND SATISFACTION OF WORK TOGETHER WITH WOMEN AND MEN MANAGERS
Vesselina Russinova, Viktoriya Nedeva
Abstract:
The aim of present empirical study is to analyze interdependence between perceptions of woman and man managers and the satisfaction of work together with them. Perceptions of woman and man managers are investigated by means of a bipolar scale, especially created with this purpose. The scale contains 21 characteristics of the ideal manager, grouped in three factors (“Personality”, “Relationships” and “Task”). The satisfaction of work together with woman and man manager is determined by means of 4-point Likert-type scale. A sample of 400 employees participates in the study. The results obtained confirm the basic hypothesis of the investigation, that there is interdependence between perceptions of woman and man managers and the satisfaction of the work together with them. This interdependence is strongest in the case of factor “Relationships”.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SENSE OF HUMOR AND SOME FACTORS OF SUBJECTIVE WELL BEING
Boryan Andreev
Abstract:
The focus of this study was to investigate the relationship between Sense of humor and such factors of subjective well being (as) like extroversion, mastery and control of the situation, and satisfaction with the life as whole. Three questionnaires were distributed to results were scored. The data were analyzed and a significant correlation was found between sense of humor and satisfaction with the life as whole. No (significant) correlation was found between sense of humor and extroversion, and between mastery and control of the situation and sense of humor. Results revealed a significant positive relationship between enthusiasm, gladness and happiness. Some direction for future research including negative sense of humor not focus on the self, but rather on others ( aggressive and rude humor, for example) and it relation with subjective well being.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
COMPARISON ON ASSESSMENT OF WORK ORGANIZATION AND SATISFACTION WITH IT BETWEEN DIFFERENT GROUPS IN BULGARIAN ENTERPRISES
Vesselina Russinova, Lidiya Vasileva, Sonya Zhilyova
Abstract:
The aim of the following study is to reveal the specificity in assessment of work and its organization as well as the satisfaction with them in different groups of employees in Bulgarian enterprises. For this reason two authors’ methods are used: Questionnaire for analysis of work content and its organization and a Questionnaire for studying work satisfaction. The subjects are 119 employees classified in 8 different groups according to: type of enterprise (state - private); work position (manager - employed); educational level (secondary – higher) and gender. Results indicate higher assessments on the parameters of work organization compared to those about the level of satisfaction. Significant differences are revealed in the two dimensions studied according to the group differentiations.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
AGE DIFFERENCES IN ATTITUDES OF ADOLESCENTS TO CIVIL LIBERTIES
Maria Atanassova-Trifonova
Abstract:
Assuming that the representation of ethical concepts is not literal, but complex and metaphoric in its nature, we applied a methodology for investigating the attitudes of adolescents to civil rights based on their overall metaphorical understanding. It reflects different aspects of human experience related to human agency, welfare, fairness etc. The experimental study examined dynamic of change in attitudes of 284 adolescents to basic human rights- right of existence, of freedom, of privacy, of equal opportunity, freedom of religion, speech and thought. The participants divided in three age groups (11- 13- and 15- year-olds) rated eight concepts of rights on the scales of semantic differential technique.
The analysis revealed a significant effect of age on attitudes to civil liberties- older adolescents were more likely to evaluate higher the concepts on evaluative dimension. However, the more realistic view of the complexity of human rights and their regulatory function in the social system, gained through the experience provoke them to give low estimations of these concepts on potency dimension. The lowest position of concept “right for privacy” could be explained by the sensitivity of adolescents to issues related to their need for detachment and the limited opportunity for independent choices, made by their own.
*Language of the article: English
TORRANCE'S CREATIVE MOTIVATION SCALE: RELIABILITY AND CONSTRUCT VALIDITY OF THE BULGARIAN FORM
Katya Stoycheva, Dimitar Shtetinski, Kalina Popova
Abstract:
Bulgarian adaptation of Torrance’s creative motivation scale was administered to five samples of high school students (14 – 19 years; n = 106 and 407), university students (17 – 43 years; n = 208 and 130) and adults (17 – 69 years; n = 375). The internal consistency for the retained 18 items (Cronbach’s alpha) ranged 0,78 to 0,84 across samples. Test-retest reliability was 0,77 for a 1,5-month interval (n = 253) and 0,67 for a 3-month interval (n = 112). Creative motivation correlated positively with tolerance for ambiguity and orientation towards achieving high standards in one’s activity (Pearson’s r from 0,31 to 0,39) among high school students (n = 106) and university students (n = 130). Creative motivation’s items were identified that differentiated individuals with high and low tolerance for ambiguity and those with high and low need for achievement. Creative motivation was also related to adolescents’ self-concept (n = 219). Highly motivated individuals showed greater self-esteem (r = 0, 38) as well as greater discrepancy between their Real and Ideal Selves (r = 0,22).
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
VERIFICATION, ANALYSIS AND TREATMENT OF THE PROBLEM SLEEP IN SLEEP DISTURBED BREATHING
Bozhidar Dimitrov, Peter Petrov, Milena Nikolova, Slavcho Slavchev
Abstract:
Normal sleep constitutes of several distinctive stages, assessed by the simultaneous and complementary analysis of electroencephalographic (EEG), electromyographic (EMG) and electrooculographic (EOG) registrations. Bound together within fixed, although loose relationship, as concerning occurrence, duration and continuity, these stages build a robust architecture, thus providing physiological base for normal restorative sleep. In various sleep disturbances, the altered structure of sleep cycles is revealed in daily life as the Syndrome of Excessive Daytime Sleepiness (EDS). Early signs of the Syndrome might be demonstrated as fatigue, irritation, cognitive deficit and worsened performance. When left untreated, these disturbances might ultimately provoke working hazards, traffic accidents and poor quality of life, culminating into fatal exodus. There is a beneficial technique – nasal continuous positive air pressure, nCPAP – that eliminates one of the many reasons for sleep disorders: the obstruction of upper airways during sleep, namely obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In this paper some swift and long-lasting improvements in patients with OSA are illustrated, pointing to noteworthy achievements in modern medicine.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONS AND DEVELOPMENT
Bogdana Aleksandrova
Abstract:
The paper is a review on executive functions from a neuropsychological perspective. A number of definitions and models exist that overlap to a different degree as far as the nature and components of executive functions are concerned. Many researchers underline their role in cognitive control as these functions control the execution of any goal-directed and complex activity, especially in novel or difficult situations.
The study of these abilities that have been much debated in the last decades is overviewed in relation to their structure-function mapping. Theories about their age-related changes are presented. Current theoretical models that explain childhood developmental disorders in terms of deficits of different aspects of executive functions due to damage to the prefrontal neuronal circuits are considered.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
TACTUAL PERCEPTION OF BRAILLE SIGNS IN THE EVENT OF TIME DEFICIT
Yordanka Lalova, Encho Gerganov, Kamelya Borissova
Abstract:
The purpose of this research is to study the cognitive mechanisms of coding and recoding during tactile perception of Braille writing by non-seeing people.
The people tested are congenitally blind. They touched one letter with the right and left-hand fingers per second and named the letter. Incorrect answers and a mismatch of a particular letter for other have also been discarded. Processing of the results has been carried by means of factor analysis and cluster analysis.
Differences have been established for the two sexes. It has been found that women pointed as closest Braille signs with mirror images. Men grouped the signs by random features. It has therefore been concluded that men needed some kind of a construct for the acquisition of Braille writing.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian