Institute for population and human studies
 
  • PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH (in Bulgarian)
    PSIHOLOGICHNI IZSLEDVANIA
    ПСИХОЛОГИЧНИ ИЗСЛЕДВАНИЯ
  •    
    ISSN 1311-4700    (Print)
    ISSN 2367-4563  (Online)
Due to some changes we are making to our website, the registrations and login are temporarily closed. Thank you for your patience!

Volume 12, Issue 1 (2009)

RISE OF PSYCHOLOGY AS A SCIENCE IN BULGARIA FROM THE BEGINNING OF XIXTH CENTURY
Sonya Zhilyova-Ermenova
Abstract:
A special study of archive documents placed on the Museum of Education in Gabrovo finds that from the beginning of XIXth century psychology was very important for the education of children and for the preparation of teachers, leaders, and writers of the Bulgarian national revival, and social active members. According to the successful application of these activities, psychological literature was translated into Bulgarian from books of Greek, Russian, French, German, English and other and other languages (often Russian translations were used). The Bulgarian intellectuals of that time were aware of the importance of this kind of literature and were using parts of original publications on scientific research and theoretical psychology in European countries as France, Great Britain, Germany and other countries. The connection between theoretical psychology and education does not only increase its scientific prestige, but also makes it legitimate and needed for the society.
The most important documents of confirmed foreign authors and Bulgarian intellectuals, translators and lecturers are introduced in this article.
The awareness of the importance of scientific knowledge in the field of psychology for education of children and human development is of great significance in the past and also in our days.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
FREUD’S “APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY” OF RELIGION: BASIC IDEAS
Nonka Bogomilova
Abstract:
The author has presented and analyzed some of Freud’s basic ideas on and approaches to religion, which he himself considered to be his most important and valuable effort in applied psychology. Freud’s interpretations of religion are examined in the perspective of individual psychology, of social psychology (Totem and Taboo, Moses and Monotheism, Psychology of the Masses and Analysis of the Human Ego) and philosophy (The Future of an Illusion). In the first two aspects the author has presented Freud’s ideas on religion in the context of his understanding of man and society as a process of mastering and repressing instincts (sexual and aggressive) by culture. Though this process is useful for society, it is traumatizing for the human being, provoking neurotic processes and responses. Also analyzed is the application of some basic Freudian categories – Superego, Oedipus complex – as a methodological tool for the understanding of religion. Presented are the assessments of Freud’s ideas and work by his followers E. Fromm, H. Marcuse, etc., in the context of the present-day state of psychoanalysis.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
PSYCHOLOGICAL TYPE AND WORK VALUES AT BULGARIAN STUDENTS
Eva Papazova, Eliana Pencheva
Abstract:
The aim of the article is to study and analyze the relationship between psychological type and work values at Bulgarian students. 253 youngsters, aged between 19 and 27 years old, from different universities in Sofia are studied. Applied are MBTI questionnaire, form G, and Vunderink and Hofstede work values and/or aims questionnaire for students.
The investigation shows that seven out of eight type dimensions significantly interacted with work values. The Extraversion (E) corresponds mostly with Vunderink and Hofstede work values, while for Introversion (I) dependency is not observed. Mostly practiced work priorities at studied contingent are “recognition”, “use skills” and “security”. The patterns of psychological type exert influence on 8 out of 22 work values, as ESTP values mostly “advancement” and ‘benefits”, and ESFP – ‘conditions’ and ‘stress free”. A comparison with Finnish and Pakistan samples shows that “use skills” is the mostly preferred work aim across the three nationalities.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
LIFE QUALITY EFFECT ON HEALTH BEHAVIOUR IN UNIVERSITY ENVIRONMENT: CROSS-CULTURAL STUDY IN BULGARIA, GERMANY AND POLAND
Snezhana Ilieva, Vihra Naydenova
Abstract:
The article presents the results from cross-national survey by more than 2000 students from Germany, Poland and Bulgaria. The aim of the article is comparison in the subjective quality of life, life satisfaction and health behavior by the first-year students from these three European countries. Significant cross-national differences were measured in the field of the life satisfaction and also in the field of health behavior. The satisfaction with life aspects determines differently student’s health behavior. The satisfaction with social aspects of life influences the health behavior by Bulgarian and German students. By Bulgarian students the satisfaction with partnership determines smoking behavior and drugs consumption behavior. The satisfaction with the studies determines the alcohol consumption and the smoking behavior by Polish students. There are no cross-cultural differences in the physical activity by three groups - it is determined by the satisfaction with social aspects of life. The subjective quality of life determines less the health behavior by students as the life satisfaction.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
ETHNIC IDENTITY AMONG ADOLESCENTS OF TURKISH, ROMANY AND BULGARIAN ORIGIN
Zornitza Ganeva, Jean Phinney
Abstract:
Like most countries in Europe, Bulgaria has a population that is characterised by significant ethnocultural variety. Bulgaria is an example of tolerant co-existence among the representatives of 30 ethnic and religious groups on the Balkan Peninsula. As of 2002, the share of the Bulgarian citizens with minority ethnicity exceeded 16%. The focus in the present study is on ethnic identity as a general phenomenon that is relevant across groups. The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) (Phinney, 1992) consists of 14 items assessing three aspects of ethnic identity: positive ethnic attitudes and sense of belonging (5 items); ethnic identity achievement, including both exploration and commitment of identity issues (7 items); ethnic behaviours or practices (2 items) and Other-group orientation measure (6 items). 168 high school students (89 Bulgarians, 47 Turks, and 32 Roma; 81 boys and 87 girls; average age 17) participated in the study and completed the questionnaire. The relationship of ethnic identity to various demographic variables and to self-esteem was examined. The ethnic identity components were analysed separately for the three ethnic groups. Further analyses were made to investigate the homogeneity of the three ethnic groups.
*Language of the article: English
АСОЦИИРАНЕ НА ПУШЕНЕТО С ДРУГИ РИСКОВИ ПРАКТИКИ У СРЕДНОШКОЛЦИ
Михаела Сарова, Георги Саров, Веселина Русинова
Abstract:
Напоследък в литературата се забелязва стремеж за пренасочване на научното търсене от изучаване на отделни рискови поведения към изследване на рискови клъстери (група рискови практики), което би дало нови възможности за разбиране и контролиране на рисковото поведение. За да проучим каква е ролята на пушенето и сексуалността за формирането на рискови клъстери (рисковия клъстеринг), проведохме анонимно анкетно изследване ср ед ученици от три средни училища в гр. Стара Загора (n=987). Събраните данни показват, че пушенето се асоциира позитивно с пиенето и употребата на леки наркотици, със сексуалната атрактивност и ефективност. Излагаме хипотетично обяснение на получените резултати, според което е възможно рисковото поведение да се използва в юношеската възраст като доказателство за бунтарска идентичност, претендираща за романтичен имидж и лидерски позиции в юношеската субкултура, като по този начин се увеличава сексуалната атрактивност и ефективност. Предполагаме, че това може да бъде поне отчасти причина за рисковия клъстеринг в юношеска възраст.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
REPORTED COMPLIANCE IN POLICE-CIVILIAN ENCOUNTERS: THE ROLES OF ACCOMMODATION AND TRUST IN BULGARIA AND THE UNITED STATES
Tolya Stoitsova, Charles W. Choi, Howard Giles, Valerie Barker and Christopher Hajek
Abstract:
Recent research has demonstrated that, for young adults, officers’ accommodative practices are potent predictors of civilians’ attributed trust in police, and their perceived likelihood of compliance with police requests. The present study continued this line of work in the United States and Bulgaria. The latter context is not only intriguing as little communication research has been conducted there, but is significant in being heralded as having one of the most corrupt governments and law enforcement institutions in the European Community. Besides differences between nations, results revealed that for U.S.A. participants, officer accommodativeness indirectly predicted civilian compliance through trust. For those in Bulgaria, however, only direct relationships were found – between officer accommodation and civilian trust, and between accommodation and compliance. Тhe latter finding is fairly unique and the theoretical and practical significance of these are discussed.
*Language of the article: English
AFFECTIVE IMAGINERY AS SELF-KNOWLEDGE AND SELF-TRANSFORMATION METHOD
Krasimira Baytchinska
Abstract:
The method of active imagination in different versions is used by many psychotherapeutic schools that proves its creative potential for healing. This method was elaborated and used for by C.G.Jung in 1912 – first as a method for self-knowledge and later as a method for working with clients in psychotherapy. The aim of this article is to present the method of active imagination focusing on the essence of its different phases and its ultimate goal – self-knowledge based on entering the collective unconsious and integration of consciousness and the unconsicous through the transendent function. It is stressed that the method doesn’t limit itself only with knowledge of the unconsious embied by Freuds in his maxim: “the Id has to be replaced by the Ego”. Jung denies the priority of the consiousness and delineates the role of dialog between consious and unconsious and a resolution of their conslicts into the framework of a symbolic reality. Spetial attention is given also to implementing of symbols into the daily life and moral attitude of consciousness towards the unconsious.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
SOCIETAL REACTIONS TO TERRORISM IN BULGARIA: MASS MEDIA AND COMBATING TERRORISM
Tolya Stoitsova
Abstract:
How and when mass media will reflect a certain terrorist act is an issue of greater significance in working out a specific terror strategy in modern societies than conducting the terror attacks themselves. Even more – we could say terrorism had converted itself in “a tragic form of audiovisual show business”. Terrorism dictates new rules of news rating in TV and Internet trying in this way to manipulate audience.
Reflecting terrorist attacks and giving publicity of terrorists’ wants is part of the role society attributes to contemporary mass media. On the other hand, exercising its public role media “help” terrorists to achieve their goals. What kind of a language is or should be used by media when depicting terror attacks appears to be of great importance.
At the present moment in Bulgaria the positive role of media could be revealed in two directions: First, in the popularization of the specific preventive institutional work that has been done as fortunately there are no international terror attacks directly committed against Bulgaria. And second, mass media could facilitate the balance in connections between anti-terror institutions and present in this way useful information to civil citizens.
*Language of the article: English
SATISFACTION AND DISAPPOINTMENT IN CONSUMER CHOICES – AN EXPERIMENT
Henrik Egbert аnd George Mengov
Abstract:
This article investigates the role that emotions play in economic decisions. In a computer-based experiment, our participants were the consumers of a fictitious service bearing resemblance to what the mobile phone operators offer. In each of 17 rounds, a participant had to choose between retaining the current supplier or changing it with a competitor, based on information about expected and actual prices to be paid. We recorded participants’ self-assessed satisfaction or disappointment on a psychometric scale. Logit models are used to explain and predict individual choices based on prices, previous decisions, and emotions. Our findings show that the prediction of choice is significantly better if information about the participants’ emotions is considered. We analyse how disrupted satisfaction treadmills make people feel disappointed at the face of financial discount, and mildly satisfied, when they have to pay more than expected.
*Language of the article: English