Institute for population and human studies
 
  • PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH (in Bulgarian)
    PSIHOLOGICHNI IZSLEDVANIA
    ПСИХОЛОГИЧНИ ИЗСЛЕДВАНИЯ
  •    
    ISSN 1311-4700    (Print)
    ISSN 2367-4563  (Online)
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Volume 16, Issue 1 (2013)

SELF-ASSERTIVENESS AS UNIVERSAL THEORETICAL CONSTRUCT IN MODERN PSYCHOLOGY
V. Vasilev
Abstract:
In this article is supported the thesis that the self-affirmation is supposed to obtain the status of a main theoretical construct in the personality psychology because the desire of self-affirmation is an universal and basic characteristic of the modern man. We’ve compared the classical ideas (of S. Freud, W. James, J. Dewey, A. Adler) which lay the foundations of this topic with two basic tendencies – the american and the russian. The author suggests two main directions in which the self-affirmation realizes: the subject’s desire of valuable acomplishments (succes and creations) and a desire of acknowledgement of these achievements by the others (by means of popularity, fame and society positions).
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
Self in the real and virtual world
M. Kiryakov, I. Zinovieva, Sv. Ivanov
Abstract:
Virtual reality is gradually becoming a key factor of the socio-cultural framework defining the beginning of the new millennium. Adaptation of the self to this new reality requires development of new resources. In a study with 89 semi-structured interviews, the authors focus on the differences between the real and virtual Self. Data suggest distinct differences exist between the selves in the two worlds. Most people (58% of sample) state their virtual self experience has a very distinct identity but does not match their self in the real world. Other participants take advantage of the possibilities that virtual communication gives for making a better impression. They carefully build a positive and close to ideal image of themselves, intently pictured to be different from their real-life personality. Third part of our subjects think virtual reality contributes to a better expression of certain characteristics of their real self. On the whole, people express a feeling that being online gives an opportunity to get closer to one's ideal self. The combination of improved real self and approximation to the ideal self creates a feeling of self-actualization.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
Personality characteristics and media influence on body image
R. Bozhinova, A. Alexandrova-Karamanova
Abstract:
The current study analyzes the role of self-esteem, perfectionism and the Big Five factors as intensifying the destructive media influence towards formation of negative body image and engagement in behaviours directed at ideal body attainment. Personality dispositions, placing certain adolescents at higher risk are discussed, as well as the relationships between the moderator function of personality characteristics and sex, pathways of media influence, the particular body image dimension and the link of specific body change behaviours with the sociocultural body ideal.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
Emotional intelligence in the context of personal subjectness
N. Alexandrova
Abstract:
The emotional intelligence’s structure in mostly psychological research includes the following components- self-consciousness, motivation, empathy, self-regulation and social skills. That research is an attempt to promote the emotional intelligence in the context of the personal subjectness.According to Rubinstein a psychological mechanism of development and transformation is the personality itself. A central point of view in that theory is the concept of “subjective activity or named as subjectness. The ‘subjectness’ represents the active side in the psychological organization of the individual.
Self-consciousness is one of the most important structural components of the personality. The development of the self-consciousness helps the formation of the ‘subjectness’. The content and comparative analysis of the ‘subjectness’ reveal two major factors that influence its quality and development, namely the motivational sphere , on one hand, and the self-consciousness, on the other hand. The ‘subjectness’ of the person is found in the wholeness of the Self, self-regulation and the stable manifestation of personal and emotional characteristics.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
Perfectionism and five factor model of personality
M. Rasheva
Abstract:
The purpose of the research is to examine the relationship between dimensions of perfectionism and Big Five personality traits. The sample include 215 students. The Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale – Frost et al. (1990) and the Big Five Inventory – John et al. (1991) are used in the study. The results demonstrate significant positive correlation between adaptive aspects of perfectionism: “Personal Standards” and “Organization” and conscientiousness. The dysfunctional components of perfectionism “Parental Expectations and Criticism”, “Concern over Mistakes” and “Doubt about Actions” are associated with neuroticism. The regression analysis show that the development of adaptive perfectionism is predicted by conscientiousness and the neuroticism predict development of dysfunctional perfectionism.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
Age and education differences in personality rigidity and its components
K. Stoycheva, D. Stetinski, K. Popova
Abstract:
This paper analyses age and education differences in the subscales of perseveration, rigidity and dogmatism, derived from Ivan Paspalanov’s questionnaire for measuring personality rigidity that has been used with university students and adults aged from 17 to 67. Younger subjects scored lower on all subscales, and subjects with higher education were characterised with lesser rigidity and dogmatism. There was an interaction between age and education: in older subjects the impact of education on dogmatism was not significant. Subscales’ scores were moderately correlated with overall scale’s score for personality rigidity, and showed acceptable test-retest reliability in 3 months interval.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
INDIVIDUAL AFFECTION STYLE AND FAMILY PLANNING
R. Bojinova, M. Petkova
Abstract:
Presented is a study on the patterns of partnership in the couple in connection with the combination of individual attachment styles of both partners. In comparative terms, tested 36 pairs of applying violence and 66 couples not-violent to "Method for the study of attachment styles in the pair" (ECR-R of Fraley, Waller and Brennan, 2000). It is proved that in couples with violent combination of attachment styles are preoccupied/ avoidant and fearful/ preoccupied implication respectively partnership with models of conflict "persecution/distance and proximity / distance". Partnering without violence in the couple is mainly based on the combination of styles, one of which is usually secure style. As a result, patterns are formed partnerships with balance "independence / intimacy" and "accessibility / responsiveness." There is also a combination fearful / fearful style suggestive model of "keeping the distance" in the pair.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
Communicative style in lifespan perspective
E. Pencheva
Abstract:
The aim of this article was to study the dynamics of communicative style in different age groups during the period 15 – 55 years, and to look for the presence of certain developmental pattern. A Bulgarian adaptation of Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), form G, was administered to 693 participants aged 15 to 55 (358 males and 335 females), distributed into 5 age categories. Nonlinear developmental trajectory of the capacity for communicative behaviour was outlined. It showed descending tendency of inclination to extravert (E) (F = 4.4; P = .002), intuitive (N) (F = 20.7; P = .000), feeling (F) (F = 15.5; P = .000) and perceptive (P) (F = 26.5; P = .000) communicative behavior and respectively ascending tendency of inclination towards introvert (I), sensing (S), thinking (T) and judging (J) communicative behavior with age.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
Stagesof psychosocialmaturity andsocialand/orschool environmentin adolescence
E. Papazova, R. Antonova
Abstract:
The aim of the paper is to determine the stages of psychosocial maturity in adolescents from orphanages, segregated Roma schools, mixed schools and Bulgarian school. 309 respondents in adolescence are studied. The Erikson Psychosocial Stage Inventory was applied (Erikson Psychosocial Stage Inventory, Rosenthal et al., 1981). The results show that the adolescents from the Bulgarian school are characterized by the highest values of autonomy and intimacy. The adolescents from the segregated Roma schools are as a whole most immature and characterized by the lowest values of autonomy and industry. The adolescents from orphanages are characterized by highest values of industry and the lowest levels of intimacy.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
Script permission – exit from the script
I.Levkova
Abstract:
The article presents basic ideas about scripts in Transactional analysis. A case with a positive exit from a non-constructive script is described. The article describes the script ‘permission’ that the consultant gives during the process of analysis seen as a ‘push’ out of the script and what the person being consulted experiences during the ‘permission’.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
Health Psychology in Bulgaria: Establishment and New Perspectives
H. Silgidjiyan
Abstract:
The article examines some basic issues dedicated to the promotion and establishment, the actual state and the future perspectives in the development of Health Psychology in Bulgaria. Special attention is paid to the differential specifics of the two orientations in health psychology: the clinical and the social one. Presented here is the modern tendency in the professional training of specialists in the USA and Europe which insists on an integrative synthesis of competences from three areas: clinical psychology, public health psychology and psychotherapy. There are arguments for the necessity of that integrative approach in.
In this regard some concerns are the implementation of the main goals of the modern health psychology: optimization of mental health and experience of well-being; prevention of physical and mental disorders and treatment improvement expressed about the establishment of clinical health psychology as one of the promising directions in the future career rising of health psychologists. (Belar. C., 1997; Belar. C., McIntyre T. & Matarazzo J., 2003; Friedman, 2007; Silgidjiyan, 2011; Silgidjiyan, Papancheva, 2012, 2013; Zankova, 2012).
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
Humanistic Psychology and some new Trends in the Practice of Psychological Consulting
R. Georgieva, N. Bavro
Abstract:
Some new forms of psychological consulting are presented, which have recently become popular and widespread, coming out with the declaration of belonging to the principles of humanistic psychology. From the point of view of humanistic psychology, namely with respect to its basic concepts such as “self-actualization”, “peak experiences”, and “peak achievements”, the principles and the methods of achmeology consultancy services, and those of “coaching” and person centered psychotherapy are discussed.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
Validation of the Bulgarian version of screening methods for cognitive impairments Mini-Mental State Examination and Isaac’s Set Test in elderly population
M. Raycheva, K. Stoyanova, A. Janyan, S. Mehrabian, R. Pavlova, M. Petrova, L. Traykov
Abstract:
Aim:The aim of this study was standartization and validation of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Isaac's Set Test (IST) in Bulgarian aging population. Methods: Three-hundred and seventy-three participants underwent the MMSE and IST test, of them 155 cognitively healthy subjects without neurological and psychiatric disorders, 135 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 83 patients with dementia (Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia). Results: The optimal cut-off score of MMSE for screening of the general Bulgarian population (cognitively healthy vs. MCI and dementia) is 26/27, with higher specificity at cut-off 27/28 when younger MCI patients are considered. The optimal cut-off score of IST test for screening of the general Bulgarian population (cognitively healthy vs. MCI and dementia) is 30/31; the optimal cut-off for dementia patients is 27/28. Conclusions: MMSE and IST results when standardized and validated in Bulgarian population might better contribute to recognition of the individuals at risk for dementia that should be directed to memory outpatient clinics for detailed examination.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
Factors for future development of health psychology related to public health
B. Tzenova
Abstract:
The objective is to identify actual challenges and priorities driving necessarily the development of health psychology and public health (each combining interdisciplinary approaches), their joint action field, mutual goals and tasks. In accordance with the key objectives of the Europe 2020 strategy of smart inclusive growth the main challenges in the coming years are: demographic change, new technologies, globalization and accompanying changes resulting in increase of psychosocial health risk, determining priorities in occupational health research. Workplace health promotion is integral part of these objectives. Work pace and nature change rapid thus the demands and population mental health problems.
Presented are close interplaying with public health current alternative approaches in health psychology– public and community. Analyzed are various indicators of mental health as the main health policy challenge EU faced in 21 century based on solid empirical research in EU and data pool of 2103 employees differing in occupation in Bulgaria, with revealing their interrelations with psychosocial work factors. Conclusion. Health psychology and public health, as well as occupational health, interplay and complement well in theory, research and practical interventions. The main goal of health psychology is in tune with this of public and occupational health.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
Inauthenticity and self-alienation as a basis of problematic mental health of unemployed in crisis conditions: existential-psychodynamic meta-analysis of cross-sectional and longitudinal research
Pl. Dimitrov, N. Mateeva
Abstract:
The paper is concerned with the effects of inauthenticity and self-alienation of unemployed on their mental health status. Authorshypothesized that experience of inauthenticity and self-alienation: (a) is typical characteristic of unemployment situation and (b) is systematically associated with diminished well-being and mental health both in unemployed and in other social groups. Existential-psychodynamic meta-analysis of a large spectrum of empirical findingsfrom cross-sectional and longitudinal studies endorses both hypotheses. Unemployed people in the present prolonged crisis conditions are in the existential situation of inauthentic and self-alienated living which is consistently associated with psychological distress, depression, anxiety, low subjective well-being and life satisfaction, and poorer self-esteem. All available empirical data clearly endorse the psychosocial authenticity rehabilitationmodel for effective professional help of unemployed.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
Art TherapyinGerontology
N. Doseva, St. Todorova
Abstract:
The elderly people experiencing crisis in terms of changes in the social and professional status, namely - disruption of employment. This leads to social isolation and feelings of loneliness and worthlessness - a dynamic and rather full of commitment and tight schedule of work daily rhythm is replaced with a lot of free time, recreation, prevalent in everyday life and lead to apathy. Reduce social contacts, income decline, arise some chronic diseases or unlock new ones. Somatic status is also dynamic and this creates an extra sense of inferiority and dependence. Generally at this age there is a decrease of the vitality of man. This is the age in which personal dramas often follow-loss of relatives and family partner. To reinforce interpersonal conflicts account of dynamic to emotional instability. As a result of all that erodes self-assessment is distorted self-concept. Social desirability is increased and arises for the adoption of social roles - not typical for those who seek to gain more followers and to win allies and sympathizers with the price of hypocrisy and new behavioral roles such as a victim - "Poor Me." All this makes the old man - anti-adaptive and vulnerable. Raises anxiety is declined high resistance to stress and tolerance for frustration. If there is no change in the daily life - this can lead to apathy, depression and impairment of general somatic and mental condition. Often older people unlock pathology of behavior and the character and personality changes - escapes into abnormalities. It is here that includes art therapy as a successful method to work in gerontology.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
Family psychotherapeutic relationships: an alternative approach
T. Stoeva
Abstract:
Fundamental to the design is the idea that the process of communication between parent and child can be treated as a variant of psychotherapeutic contact. The main psychological schools are presented in terms of the relationship parent-child. In the context of those schools are outlined recommendations for the parental behavior to children and adolescents.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
SPECIFICITIES OF PARENTS – CHILDREN RELATIONS AND BEHAVIORAL ANXIETY IN PRE-SCHOOL AGE
V. Ivanova, Iv. Alexandrov
Abstract:
The curent paper presents the stage of exploration of the interrelationship between family relationships, parent-child relationships and behavior in childhood anxiety. Were examined 85 people - 75 women and 10 men. The main objective of this report is to analyze and disclose the specifics of the parental-child relationship in children with behavioral anxiety. It is assumed that parents (mostly mothers) of children with behavioral anxiety will have significant differences in terms of optimality of emotional contact with the child, пaternal overprotection excessive emotional distance from the child compared to control group. Was used Parental attitude research instrument research for the study of parental attitudes / PARI /. The obtained results confirm the hypothesis that mothers of children with increased behavioral anxiety, are significant associated with пaternal overprotection, disturbed emotional contact, control, svrahzagrizhenost and creating a relationship of dependency.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
OBSERVATION ON LIFE QUALITY AFTER LIVER AND RENAL TRANSPLANTATION
Krumova-Pesheva R., Spasov L., Mikhailova, V.
Abstract:
Patients with organ transplantation experience great traumatismwhile accepting the new organ - physically and mentally. Integration of the organ is associated with the process of social integration, resocialization and rehabilitation of patients. Attitudes towards those people are still disqualifying in Bulgaria. This is mainly due to ignorance of the problem and lack of information about organ transplantations.
The authors’ purpose is to show the changes of the patients with liver and renal transplantation. 40 cases of patients (15 with liver and 25 with renal transplantation) are presented. The authors consider such criteria as: career, social integration and family relations.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION OF PATIENTS WITH LIVER TRANSPLANTATION
Krumova-Pesheva R., Spasov L., Mikhailova, V.
Abstract:
Abstract. Organ transplantation is a life-saving surgery for many patients. At the same time, it is а severe psychotraumatic event very hard to handle by the patients even over long periods of time. A liver transplantation from a cadaveric donor brings up a number of questions of medical, psychological, religious, ethical nature. The psychotherapeutic work is a way to overcome the traumatic aspects of the procedure, a way to change and become independent person.
Anxiety and depression are the leading emotions during the pre and post transplantation periods. The authors’ purpose is to show the dynamics of these emotions during the process of psychological evaluation, consulting and psychoanalytic psychotherapy with the patients.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian