Institute for population and human studies
 
  • PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH (in Bulgarian)
    PSIHOLOGICHNI IZSLEDVANIA
    ПСИХОЛОГИЧНИ ИЗСЛЕДВАНИЯ
  •    
    ISSN 1311-4700    (Print)
    ISSN 2367-4563  (Online)
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Volume 4, Issue 2 (2001)

ТHE EMOTIONAL INFLUENCE OF ADVERTISEMENT
Bilyana Velikova
Abstract:
This paper presents the problem about emotional impact of advertisement. It has been made an attempt for theoretical review and analysis of the main researches into the field of advertisement psychology accessible in Bulgaria. Conclusions could be made in 3 major directions:
  • 1. Contemporary advertisement is multifunctional phenomenon. During its development advertisement has modified and improved its societal functions.
  • 2. Contemporary advertisement is oriented toward and emotional influence on consumers. On the other hand, the consumers of the modern world favored with high information availability as well as with technological innovations, have turned into self-rationalized individuals. But they need and search the “emotional” activation that they miss, which make them dependent on the advertisement impact. Market relations, on the other hand, offer various commodities overlapping one another functionally.
  • 3. As a result of the emotional impact over advertisement users, it can be achieved.
The creation of a specific “emotional profile”, which supports the product’s market position.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
COMMUNICATION STYLES ROLE AND IMPORTANCE IN SOCIAL INTERACTIONS
Bistra Mizova
Abstract:
In the contemporary society it is prevailing the notion that communication is both a way of establishing successful social interactions and a social skill, which requires development and refinement at individual and group level. The way we get into contacts with other people determines to a large extent our happiness and professional realization.
The theory of communication styles is of great interests (Scultz von Thun, Fr. ,1989). A conception, concerning the existence of eight relatively differentiated styles of interaction between an individual and his\hers surrounding as well as the nature of verbal and nonverbal patterns in the interpersonal communication.
It is proceeded from the view that each of the styles described is related to certain states of the Self, comprehended as a complex of aspirations, feelings, attitudes and intentions, which characterize a personality and reach the partner in communication through specific verbal messages and non-verbal behavioral patterns.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
CURRENT UNDERSTANDINGS OF SOCIAL AND COLLECTIVE REPRESENTATIONS
Diana Bakalova
Abstract:
Moscovici’s “social representations” turn into a basic concept of the European social cognition mainline. They develop Durkheim’s notion of collective representations, nevertheless, they have more limited and dynamic character. Collective representations embrace every kind of intellectual form – science, myth, religion, etc. Thus, they relate to social cognition shared by all members of society. On the other hand, social representations characterize the representational unity of separate groups within heterogeneous and diversified societies.
It is suggested that social representations are much more appropriate for explaining social cognition phenomena in modern societies, where competitive and dynamic views prevail. Collective representations could only serve as an explanation of social phenomena in small, homogeneous and traditional societies, where they have been handed down to the next generations, as well as transformed into a stable framework of communal life.
Thus collective representations, as they have been defined by Durkheim, do not present a general category nowadays, but a separate level of social representations, since such entity and invariability of views have not existed even in communities, where tradition still prevail.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
PSYCHOLOGICAL TYPE AND SELF-CONCEPT-CROSS-CULTURAL STUDIES
Eva Papazova
Abstract:
In psychological literature there are studies that search for points in common as well as differences between the Self-concept and psychological type in the area of personology. The Self-concept is the objective side of the Self and is a result of self-recognition of the individual at a given stage of its development. The remaining component of the individual are no less important for the person and can be seen in personality models that identify to a greater degree of entirety the individual aspects of the personality structure, which is the model of the psychology type. There are very few studies that explicitly measure the relationship between the Self-concept and the psychological type. At the same time, there are a number of examples of literature in the field of cross-cultural studies carried out on the basis of a MBTI questionnaire, operationalising the type theory, which implicitly contain the idea of a relationship between the type and the Self-concept.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
FAMILY AS A FACTOR FOR DRUG ADDICTION PREVENTION
Garabed Barakyan
Abstract:
To be a parent is an enormous responsibility. Destiny of your children is in your hands, and the future of the society itself depends on how parents shape the next generation. Family is the main factor stimulating yongsters’ addictive behaviour by the so-called “problem situations in the family”(as divorce, chronic illness, drug or alcohol addiction of parents, child abuse and so on. Bad functioning family chronic illness, drug or alcohol addiction of parents, child abuse and so on. Bad functioning family environment indicates drug consumption growing up into abuse and addiction.
Aim af the article is to demonstrate the important role of the family in drug prevention in interaction with school, municipality, mass media and national drug policy. We have formulated some ideas, principals and models for drug abuse prevention within and by family by the means of interpretation of some negative parental strategies towards drug experimentation of their children.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
ASPECTS OF GROUP EFFECTIVENESS WITHIN PRIVATE, STATE AND NONGOVERMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS
Gergana Djenkova
Abstract:
The present study examines the relationship between the aspects of group effectiveness and the organizational type. The collected data present the “group members participation” is the most significant aspect and the “feedback” is the less one. It is hypothesized that the organizational type is significant for group effectiveness as a whole and for its 8 aspects separately. The data supported the expectation that private firms are most effective in comparison with state organizations and NGO’s.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
STYLES OF SENSE AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON THE EFFICIENCY OF WORK ACTIVITY AND PERFORMANCE
Irina Ioncheva
Abstract:
Sense and sense making influence all aspects of the human activity. The essence of sense making and its role in the information detection, information formation and the interpretation has been under the focus of theorizing and investigation for the last 30 years. The current paper pays attention to the relation between sense making and information processing in the social context. Practical issues from scientific interest in sense making in the context of the organizations are delineated. Organizational phenomena such as leadership focused on sense making, job related sense making and their influence on the efficiency of work performance are described.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
STIMULATING AND DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN’S INDIVIDUALITY
Ivelina Vassileva
Abstract:
The problem of human behavior is still of great interest for the psychological sciences. One of them is connected with the necessity of serious analysis of children’s identity and its significant role for their adequate psychological development. As unique personalities, children have their “own world “- a fact rarely realized by parents. Theoretical discussion in the material sets the necessity of a change in the attitudes towards children in our society. Authoritarian type parents educate hostile, not self-confident children with high level of anxiety. The expression “Our children are our future” is a great responsibility, but not a threat. Adequate and positive stimuli zing of children’s identity will give a chance for developing psychologically healthy personalities, creativity capable and life satisfied.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING-PERSONAL AND CROSS-CULTURAL APPROACH
Margarita Stefanova
Abstract:
In the last few decades there was an increasing interest in both research and analysis of subjective well-being and of personality development. New researches aim to establishing the conditions that provide satisfaction with life and happiness.
In general well-being includes the assessments of people of their lives – as cognitive, as well as emotional ones. Peoples asses their life(especially, the satisfaction of life) on the basis of significant life fields(profession, marriage, romantic relations and others). On the emotional level people react to life events with pleasure(joy and positive emotions) or with displeasure(anxiety and sadness). Individuals’ cognitive and affective reactions to life events could be considered within the matrix of personality and the particular social relations.
In this paper I will analyze the theoretic formulations for interpretation of well-being and some studies in the context of personal and cross-cultural approaches.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
SYNDROME OF ATTENTION DEFICIT WITH HYPERACTIVITY-IDENTIFICATION AND DIAGNOSIS CRITERIA
Milena Manova
Abstract:
Some children have difficulties and apparently can’t sit still, pay attention or follow instructions and rules. If this problem persist and interfere seriously with schoolwork and family life the children may be diagnosed as having attention deficit disorder (ADD). Formerly known as minimal brain damage or dysfunction, hyperkinesias and hyperactivity, the disorder received its present official name about 20 years ago. The major symptoms are hyperactivity, impulsiveness and inattentiveness. The symptoms are now thought to continue into adulthood, taking new form with age.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
PATHOLOGICAL GAMBLING: FACTORS AND PHASES
Maria Vasileva-Valova
Abstract:
Gambling is a human culture phenomenon with a centuries-old history and numerous faces. The general definition of gambling may be : expecting profit from a bet in favor of probable event. Pathological gambling is admitted as existing disorder in 1980 when DSM-III was published. In the present report the criteria for diagnosing this disorder was included.
The factors for pathological gambling are various and not studied enough. Social, psychological and psychiatric factors are mentioned, including sex, age, race, locus of control, alexithymia, ADHD, parents and or friends with gambling problem etc.
The phases in the career of pathological gambling are four: The phase of winning, the phase of losing, The desperation phase and the phase of hopelessness. They suggest a concise model of the developing of this disorder though they are not obligatory.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
BRIEF THERAPY BASIC INTERVENTIONS AND SOCIAL FACTORS RELATED TO IMPROVEMENT
Miroslava Petkova and Valeri Nikolov
Abstract:
The present report discusses basic interventions in brief therapy. The technique described rests on a conceptualisation of the nature of human problems that is discontinuous with traditional models. The results of clinical research on 38 brief therapy clients are presented. Differences are found between men and women, and between successful or unsuccessful clients in finishing the therapy. In general, the study conclusions support the effectiveness of treatment approach that involves both brief therapy and hypnotherapy interventions.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
PUPIL’S ATTITUDE TOWARD LEARNING ACTIVITY
Muftah Ali Ahmed
Abstract:
The presented research includes ranging of the reasons for the positive students’ attitudes towards different school subjects – interests, manner of teaching, necessity of educational activity, stage of difficulty, required resources, entertainment, parent’s requirements, studies satisfaction, desire for university appliance, etc. The reason for students’ negative attitude toward subjects are discussed also: knowledge useless in life, inadequate manner of teaching, difficulties in understanding, lack of common interests between students and teachers, parents’ disapproval, negative emotions caused by the manner of teaching, etc.
The research is cross-cultural and compares the study motivation of Bulgarian and Yemeni students.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
ATTITUDE FOR LONGITUDE DATA ANALYSIS BY LINEAR-STRUCTURAL MODELLING AND NEURON NETWORKS
Nadejda Atanasova
Abstract:
This paper compares two data-processing methods – the linear structural equation modeling and the artificial neural networks from the standpoint of their application to longitudinal data analysis in psychological research. Their essence is outlined together with each method’s advantages and limitations for data analysis. Particular attention is paid to those methods’ differences and opportunities for complementary use, so that a maximal explanatory effect of a studied construct is achieved.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
SOCIALIZATION PROCESSES IN EARLY SCHOOL AGE AND TELEVISION
Petya Tsvetanova
Abstract:
Middle childhood socialization proceeds mainly in two institutions- family and school. However, children’s socialization researchers would have remained incomplete without considering mass-media, particularly TV, influence. There are many issues, which determines researches’ mainline. What is the parental style? How does the child adapt to the school? What kind of peer relations does it have? It is suggested that TV and other media become the third rank socializing institution.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
SPECIAL FEATURES OF THE SELF-CONCEPT OF MINORITIES’ MEMBERS
Radostina Antonova
Abstract:
The group membership has a perceptual or cognitive ground – the self-perception or the perception of the others is built by abstract social categories that are internalized in the individual’s self-concept. Therefore the group membership(the social identity of the individual) is a significant element of the structure of the individual identity. The individual identity has two main components: the self-concept(the individual’s perception of himself) and the social identity(build by the individual group membership). The psychological criterion to define a group as minority is: The minorities are entities. Their members realize their own specific social status. According to it they have common features and disadvantages.” The membership in a minority is a barrier in achieving the individual life plans. The minority’s members have special features of the individual identity. One of this features is that the group (ethnic) membership is a more important element of the individual identity than the self-concept.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
COMMUNICATION ASPECTS OF SELF-PRESENTING IN A TRAINING GROUP
Silvia Tsvetanska
Abstract:
The training model for development of communication skills is a proper form to acquire some efficient behavior strategies, formed on the basis of one’s own background and experience and learning by doing. As a result the training leads to increasing of group dynamic and cohesion, to enhancing of self-confidence and self-knowledge.
The process of self-revelation and self-expressing is demonstrated trough the analysis of the results from a sensitive training, carried out with pupils from 9th class of 7th School of general education in Sofia, Bulgaria. Along with the training potentialities for self-knowledge and self-approval stimulation, also some specific characteristics of the adolescent’ value orientation and self-conception are revealed. Also some peculiarities in a training group are analyzed.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
LONELY MOTHERHOOD: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL ASPECTS OF LONELINESS AND PARENTING STYLES
Sonya Dragova
Abstract:
Object of this research are two problems which single mothers are confronted with: loneliness and using of parenting styles. According to the multidimensional conceptualization of Weiss there are two types of loneliness – social and emotional one. The analysis of parenting behaviour is based on Baumrind’s authoritative, authoritarian and permissive typologies. The aim is to measure the degree of social and emotional loneliness, experienced by single mothers and to reveal the model of parental styles, which they apply. In this research took part 135 mothers, divided into three groups: single mothers (n=46), married mothers (n=77) and divorced mothers (n=12). The conclusion, based on the result, is that single mother more often use authoritarian practices; they also suffer from social isolation and emotional loneliness. It was established that parenting styles are not a direct function from marital status because the level of loneliness affects them.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
MOTIVATION AND RISK APTITUDE IN ECONOMIC BEHAVIOR OF ENTREPRENEURS IN THE AGRICULTURAL FIELD
Tanya Taneva
Abstract:
The study discusses result from an empirical psychological research on risk taking behavior problems among private farmers from 13 regions of the country.
Object of analysis is the interdependence between the character of the work motivation and the ability for risk behavior.
The accent is sets on the expressing the leading type of motivation by applying at the same two approaches: an analysis of the three motive ranging and their interpretation in keeping with the theory of the inner motivation.
The ability for a motivated risk is significantly connected with the inner motivation and the ability for an unmotivated risk supposed an external motivation in a choice of the work field realization of the entrepreneur’s activity.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
Vanya Grigorova
Ваня Григорова
Abstract:
Theoretical analysis is devoted to the determinant role of parents’ complexes in forming and integrating of the Self. Their connection with unconscious acting psychic structures and their real existence in all men and women – named Anima and Animus, are also related.
Anima and Animus incite us in love, but what is their real functions, what we have to learn out of the failures in love relationships – all this is still an open question in psychological science. The possibility of the distorted archetype or the dependent one on parent’s complexes archetype that could be projected in partner’s choice and in marriage is discussed in detail. It is concluded, that archetypes are exclusive important – though they are unconscious, they act in real behaviors.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
NATURE AND STRUCTURE OF FAMILY FACTORS FOR LEARNING ACTIVITY OF CHILDREN COMING FROM TURKISH ETHOS IN BULGARIA
Vehbie Balieva
Abstract:
It is discussed in detail the leading role of the family as a factor strongly influencing the motivation establishment in early school age children. Different classifications of learning motives are suggested in psychological literature: content-motives and stimuli-motives; cognitive and social; direct and indirect; intrinsic and extrinsic.
The influence of the family on children’s learning motivation is revealed on the base of the family structure and specific interrelation among family members. The complex structure and the duties and respect of young members towards old one in Turkish ethnic families in Bulgaria are theoretically analyzed.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
NONVERBAL CORRELATES OF EMOTIONS IN FACIAL EXPRESSIONS IN CHILDHOOD
Vesna Nencheva-Rizova
Abstract:
Being guided by the theoretical preconditions for emotional expression identification, the experimental design of this study sets the following goal: Diagnostics of ability to identify emotional states in stylized facial expressions, lying on the bipolar continuum “happiness\unhappiness” as a non-verbal stimulating material to identify more subtle nuances of emotional states. Stimulus material in the form of pictures has been used (Stoitsova, T., 1998). Result processing includes frequency and content analysis.
Our study shows that children know more words for negative emotional states. On the other hand, when actual emotional state of children is perceived – the second task of our study – they definitely define themselves in the positive part of continuum.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
SOCIAL IDENTIFICATION ASPECTS IN INDIVIDUALIST AND COLLECTIVISTS
Vladimir Nikolov
Abstract:
In the present paper some new hypotheses concerning the nature and the dynamic of the social identification have been discussed, Referring to the work of Ellemers et al. (1999) the author outlines in the similar manner the theoretical and the empirical distinction made between cognitive, affective and evaluative aspects of the process. The differential influence of several characteristics of the in-group on the level of identification with it is investigated. It is suggested for this level to be studied also with respect to the relatively more individualistic or more collectivistic orientations of the individuals while some parallels are drawn between them and the personal and the social identity salience concept taken from the social identity theory and social categorizing theory tradition.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
THE PROBLEM WITH DRUG SUBSTANCE “CAT” USAGE IN THE REPUBLIC OF YEMEN
Ziad Bin Taleb
Abstract:
The history of the origin and the scattering of a specific light drug, called “cat” are revealed in short. The problem with cat-addiction becomes serious in the Republic of Yemen in the last decades as 80% of the population uses this substance. The complexity of the problem is a result not only of somatic and psychological reasons, but as well as of economical and social ones. Yemen government makes effort to restrict if not solve the discussed problem. In the present report a special stress is made on the factors influencing teenagers and young people to start use cat. The most important role in drug prevention - families and peers in school, are discussed in more details. At the same time a long-term national program with definite items is proposed by the author, who believes that psychologists, sociologist and social workers have to combine their efforts in helping drug prevention and already addicted peoples.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
STRESS IN EXTREME PROFESSIONS-MILITARY MEN IN THE FORCES FOR SPECIAL OPERATION IN BULGARIAN ARMY
Natali Doseva
Abstract:
The examination of some social and personal capabilities associated with heightened or subsided influence of stressful determined by the Army life elements evoke negative emotional effect to the soldiers and it is the purpose of this research.
The research includes a record of 48 soldiers from the 68 brigade “Special Forces” existed under the Special Forces Operation Command of the Bulgarian Army in town of Plovdiv. Some valid and self-evaluated check-up methods, culturally adopted according to the local service in the Bulgarian army and some specific matter of Bulgarian culture are used. The results show up that accepting the society as stressful factor arouse negative emotional reactions. The presence of some resources as the internal locus of control and activity satisfaction along with the social company-support are favourable to the stress-stability of soldiers.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian