Institute for population and human studies
 
  • PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH (in Bulgarian)
    PSIHOLOGICHNI IZSLEDVANIA
    ПСИХОЛОГИЧНИ ИЗСЛЕДВАНИЯ
  •    
    ISSN 1311-4700    (Print)
    ISSN 2367-4563  (Online)
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Volume 11, Issue 2 (2008)

BASIC INDIVIDUAL VALUES AT BULGARIAN STUDENTS: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS
Eva Papazova and Magdalena Garvanova
Abstract:
The aim of the research is to compare and analyze the data from two empirical investigations with the whole sample of 414 students, conducted during the period May, 2005 – April, 2007 with Shalom Schwartz’s basic individual values questionnaire (Schwartz, 1992).
The results show that the individual values and interests in unison with postmodern values of the global word retain their predominance over the collective motivational students’ goals, during the studied period. The freedom of thinking and action, not restrained from externally imposed borders (Self-enhancement value), as well as the drive for variability (Openness to change) and the acceptance of others as equals (Self – transcendence) has dominated over the values of Self-restrictions, maintenance of tradition and stability (Schwartz, 1992; Baychinska, 1994; Garvanova, 2008). Fulfillment, self-discipline and the honor towards parents and the older ones (conformity value) also decrease their significance for the studied youngsters, during the period 2005 – 2007 years.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
LEARNING STYLE AND ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION – THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVE
Diana Nacheva
Abstract:
The article aims at conceptualizing learning style and achievement motivation as important factors for the individualization of education in an academic environment. Learning style is interpreted as a typical and preferred way of perceiving, keeping and processing the new information. It is reviewed in the context of three conceptual paradigms: process-based models, preference-based models, and models based on the cognitive skills. Achievement motivation is understood as a considerable personality mediator of the instructional process that ranges over a variety of aspirations and activity motives, directed towards effectiveness while the person is trying to achieve a significant outcome. Achievement motivation is discussed from the position of the three main approaches in the psychology of motivation: process theories, attributive theories and the “expectancy-value model”.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS AS PREDICTOR OF ADDICTIVE BEHAVIOR
Sonya Boudeva
Abstract:
This material presents the results from a research of drug addictive persons. The connection is searched between personality traits and addictive behavior. They point the received solution at the deduction that some psychological personality traits can play a part of predictors for addiction when they meet a negative social factors. The received data shape a personality profile of drug abusers.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
PARENTS` COMPLEXES AND PERSONALITY ATTITUDES
Dobrin Dobrev
Abstract:
The paper examines the influence of complexes, related to parents` images, on personality attitudes, according to C. G. Jung’s psychology and post-Jungians authors. The text presents results from empirical research, demonstrating the relation between forms of parents` complexes and attitudes such as social role, perception of social authority, gender identity and many others. The data are useful for diagnostic and consulting activity in Bulgarian community.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
LOCUS OF CONTROL AND ASPIRATION FOR SUCCESS IN STUDYING AMONG ADOLESCENTS WITH LEADING COGNITIVE OR PSYCHOSEXUAL NECESSITIES
Anastasiya Gotseva
Abstract:
The results from the research among 233 adolescents are presented in this report. All of the respondents aged 16 to 18 are from Secondary Schools. Differences in the motivation for study in the two aspects - aspiration for success and wish for avoiding the failure in school activities are presented. Motivation is regarded in correlation with the locus of control of the respondents and differences among the groups that have different levels of cognitive and psychosexual necessities are searched.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
IDENTITY AND ACHIEVEMENT IN EARLY ADOLESCENCE
Denitsa Alipieva
Abstract:
This article is an overview of theories that represent the relationship between identity, achievement and self-assessment in еarly adolescence (the period between 11/12 – 15/16 years). Тheories and studies in different theoretical areas have showed variety and wealth of the factors, which facilitate formation of identity, and spheres of self-concept. It is highlighted the issue of perception and assessment of achievement as a major resource in acquisition of mature ego-identity.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
PROMOTION OF NEGATIVE MEDIA INFLUENCE PREVENTION: GUIDELINES FOR CHILDREN PROTECTION
Ergyul Tair
Abstract:
The increased importance of the role of mass media communications in the nowadays world results in deeper research interest in them. Substantial research associates exposure to entertainment media with increased levels of interpersonal violence, risky sexual behavior, body image distortion, substance abuse and obesity. The objective of this study is to review different areas of significant media influence on children’s health and recommends some guidelines to parents, educators and professionals to protect children from negative mass media presentation.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
PECULIRARITIES IN REPORTING THE BESLAN HOSTAGE CRISIS IN BULGARIAN NEWSPAPERS
Milena Filipova
Abstract:
The present article deals with the comparative analysis of the materials reporting events in Beslan in the newspapers Trud and Standart during the period 2. 09 - 2. 10. 2004. It determines the number and pattern of distribution of the articles reporting on terrorism during the period. The article studies the characteristic features of media language. It also outlines the scope of media topics. The metaphors used in naming various terrorist events are specified, as well as the synonyms, used for labeling terrorists. The article analyses the parallels between contemporary and past years historical events.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP IN POLITICS
Slavi Binev
Abstract:
The article presents the basic theoretical waves explaining the notion “charisma”. The author stresses on Weber and Feud created the first definitions and analysis on charismatic political leader. The functional approach is presented from Durkgeim, Parsons and Friedland, and pluralistic – fron Shils and Popper. The theoretical explanations are structured in relation to 1. the chronological order and 2. the focus of analysis of every author.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
VALUE ATTITUDES IN SOCIAL CHANGES
Velislava Chavdarova
Abstract:
The change of the value attitudes is conditioned by a number of determinants, some of which are socio-psychological, social, nationally-specific, personally-determined, etc. The most sensitive to dynamic social trends are students, who are the subject of this research. With the purpose to outline the nationally specific characteristics of the change in the value attitudes in the period September 2007 - March 2008, we carried out a cross-cultural survey of two groups of students – Bulgarian and Ukrainian – using the methods of Rokeach and Schwarz. In applying them we identified different cores of the value system and different category and dimensional structure of the two surveyed groups.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
INTELLIGENCE ESSENCE AND ITS FUNCTIONS IN RESPECT OF THE STATE POLICY ESTABLISHING
Nadejda Pencheva
Abstract:
Intelligence and its functions are of great significance to the policy of modern states. Intelligence offers a much needed contribution in two areas. On the one hand, the political decision making of every government is based on intelligence information. On the other hand, special intelligence forces take part in the implementation of political goals and decisions. Considering its special objectives and functions, a state’s intelligence is bound to be the leading force behind the realization of state interests and goals.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF THE WOMEN MANAGERS’ IN BULGARIA ISSUE
Viktoriya Nedeva
Abstract:
In present theoretical analysis, an explanatory Model of significant factors in professional career of women is proposed. Through the prism of a part of these factors, women´s participation in managerial sphere in Bulgaria, is analyzed. Official statistical data, describing women in contemporary work market are reviewed. Actual information about the position of the country towards the problem of equal opportunities of both sexes for carrier advancement is cited. A special attention is dedicated to the results, obtained in an empirical study of stereotypes of woman and man managers. Final conclusions are presented.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
PERSONAL INITIATIVE AT WORK: KEY ASPECTS AND EFFECTS
Sonya Dragova
Abstract:
This article investigates the nature of the concept of personal initiative and identifies its key aspects and effects on work environment and organizational performance. To explain personal initiative has been used action theory and action control theory. The research interest in initiative at work is determined by the fact that in contemporary dynamic conditions and changing requirements of external environment, organizational effectiveness and successful organizational change depend on employees’ skills to meet challenges and unexpected events, to take risks, to be flexible, proactive and overcoming barriers. All these behaviors are involved in the concept of personal initiative. High initiative at workplace changes the work situation and relates to competitive advantage and success of organizations and working people.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
ACCULTURATION AND STRESS IN ORGANIZATIONS OF MULTICULTURAL TYPE
Stoyanka Chopova
Abstract:
Due to fast growing globalization and explosion of international migration the dealing with diversity, especially a diverse workforce, has played a prominent role in social sciences, management theory and business practice in recent years. In a globalizing economy companies recognize potential benefits of a multicultural workforce and try to create more inclusive work environments. However, "many organizations have been disappointed with the results they have achieved in their efforts to meet the diversity challenge".
Acculturation theory indicates the problematic effects of intercultural contact in terms of adjustment and stress. As the workplace becomes more multicultural and more multinational, the levels of acculturative stress increase.
It is essential that managers understand the individual and organizational implications of the new stresses that are placed upon them and upon their employees. Given the fact that diversity is essentially about cultural norms and values, appropriate reflection work becomes a fundamental task to create a truly inclusive work environment where people from diverse backgrounds feel respected and recognized.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
ANALOGY AND TRANSITIVITY
Milena Mutafchieva
Abstract:
This paper is exploring whether analogy-making as an early developing ability could potentially help children to develop deductive reasoning ability and in particular, transitive inference. The presented experiment shows that the train analogy can help children correctly solve the transitive inference task. The empirical findings support Halford’s suggestions that deductive reasoning is being developed on the basis of children’s ability to make analogies.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
SOLVING PROBLEMS: HOW TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN THE SUCCESSFUL AND THE UNSUCCESSFUL APPROACHES?
Dobrina Vassileva
Abstract:
The report presents a new approach to analyzing problem solving — a linguistic analysis of the process through the prism of the conceptual metaphor theory. The literature on the topic in English identifies a few metaphors used in conceptualizing problem solving. The survey tests if these are used by Bulgarian informants and searches for a criterion differentiating between successful and unsuccessful problem solvers. The informants are 232 high school and university students, average age of 18,3 years. Their results are compared along a number of dimensions, but the only one capable of distinguishing the sample is the description of the “good solution.”
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
IDENTITY STATUS AND STYLE UNDERLYING APPLIED PROGRAMMES
Margarita Bakracheva
Abstract:
Identity is attained in adolescence; however it is changed, reorganized and re-attained throughout life cycle. On the one hand person has dominating identity status at any time and in view to better definition of this construct identity style has its specific role. In view to depict better self-constructions, researcher can study identity both as outcome and as process. The status and style approaches allow development and application of various consulting, preventing and corrective programmes, tailored to the individual and group needs.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
RHETORICAL ARGUMENTATION – INSTRUMENTS OF POLITICAL DISCOURSE AND INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION
Neli Stefanova-Ninova
Abstract:
The accelerating international commitments have driven to unprecedented increase of international contacts in the area of politics, culture and technological transfer. Discursive theory forms new models of philosophical, political and cultural thinking. The necessity of prognostication, mollification and solution of conflicts emerging in intercultural conversation in the contemporary circumstances of multi-ethnical and multi-religious co-existence causes the need of argumentative strategies in the intercultural communication. Under these conditions the perspective and successive personalities are those who have the skills of convincing conversation, the situation adaptive persons trained to get into and out of every type of situation, people trained to make impressive conclusions and having strong argumentation and fabulous memory. Achieving these abilities demands persistent training, learning and overmastering the components and arsenal of rhetorical argumentation – complex scientific process, procedure and product based on the logical rules and operating with the logical reasons and supporting points. Investigation of this reflective and lingual phenomenon grows up to be inescapable for the contemporary social sciences.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
RHETORICAL ARGUMENTATION AS A WAY OF APPROVING THE PRINCIPLES OF THE DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY
Hristo Gospodinov Yordanov
Abstract:
The basic principle of the contemporary democratic society is the presence of pluralism of opinions, ideas, comprehensions, etc. This diversity of viewpoints definitely needs a theoretical instrument for analysis, judgment and production of argumentative discourse that will compare their pragmatic dignities for taking appropriate collaborative actions for improvement of the social relationships and the social interaction.
In the present article, the writer accents to some argumentative approaches and types of arguments, the subject of the contemporary rhetorical investigation-science (The theory of argumentation), applicable in the protection, preservation and approving the principles of the democratic society.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
OFFICIAL COMMUNICATION AND OFFICIAL OUTLOOK IN THE TELEVISION RITHORICS
Kremena Georgieva
Abstract:
Under the deep impact of the information society in which we live in (Toffler, 1999), communications turn into a leading principle of the postmodern being. Television’s main characteristics and its main features both on a physical and a psychological level, have turned it into a leading channel of an information transphere. Comprehended in the narrow border of the television context, the newest theories over the development of mass media, draw a tendency of a swallow audience segmentation, which, on its side, makes the main communicator more and more dependent on its publics. In the variety of meanings, defining the communication process itself (Maletske, 1994), the verbal and the nonverbal have equal shares, understood in their wider meanings. The both channels are taken as a “phenomenon, localized in the social action area” (Burkard, 2000) in which two of them keep their exquisite independence for all. Very much in this context, official outlook takes a meaningful part of the civilization modality (Stoitzova, 1992) in the creation of an overall non-verbal media of communication, undertaken in the official style reality, built up especially by the political programmes.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
EVALUATION OF A COMPUTER GAME AS INSTRUMENT FOR EXAMINING PERSONNEL SELECTION STRATEGIES
Kalin Yanev
Abstract:
In the paper a pilot study with the browser-game ‘Employer `08” is presented. The aim is to examine the psychometric properties of the simulation for an intended future research. The game is designed for measurement of personnel selection strategies by means of virtual situation of changing environment of events, wages and candidates. The player who is in the role of an employer can plan his/her choices or act randomly. The results of the study show decent qualities of the instrument for the future research purposes.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian