Institute for population and human studies
 
  • PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH (in Bulgarian)
    PSIHOLOGICHNI IZSLEDVANIA
    ПСИХОЛОГИЧНИ ИЗСЛЕДВАНИЯ
  •    
    ISSN 1311-4700    (Print)
    ISSN 2367-4563  (Online)
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Volume 13, Issue 2 (2010)

Age, gender and income effects on subjective well-being
Margarita Bakracheva
Abstract:
Results presented are from two studies – of adolescents (pupils and students) and adults, whereas the effects of gender, age and subjective evaluation of individual income on life satisfaction and happiness. Conclusions replicate the complex influence of individual and social factors on the subjective well-being. Age and gender specific effects are outlined. Special focus discussed here are the linear proportion between high income and life satisfaction and happiness and that notwithstanding dissatisfied, adults can are happy.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
Personality trais and dynamics in Bulgarian life satisfaction between 2004-2009
Ergyul Tair, Teodora Georgieva
Abstract:
The aim of this study was to explore Bulgarian life satisfaction and its change in the last several years based on two samples from 2004 and from 2009. Also, Big Five personality traits were examined in relation to a measure of life satisfaction. The results established a weak increase in lately life satisfaction of women in comparison with 2004 and no change in men life satisfaction from 2004 to 2009. Only predictor for women’s life satisfaction in both measured times from Big Five personality traits was Emotional stability. In contrast, a nearly all of the Big Five personality traits are significantly related to men’s life satisfaction but only Emotional Stability, Extraversion and Closedness to Experience are predictors in 2004. While, in 2009 only predictor in men’s life satisfaction was Agreeableness.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
What do happiness, life satisfaction and well-being mean for Bulgarians today?
Diana Bakalova, Margarita Bakracheva, Bistra Mizova
Abstract:
Представени са междинни резултати от изследване, което търси значенията на щастието, удовлетвореността от живота и психичното благополучие за съвременните българи, както и връзките между трите концепта. Въведено е ново понятие – локус на стимулите, чиято цел е да разгърне на едно още по-задълбочено равнище изучаването на механизмите, чрез които хората насочват личностните си ресурси към основните жизнени сфери или черпят такива от основните жизнени сфери за поддържане на високи равнища на щастие, удовлетвореност от живота и психично благополучие.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
Subjective well-being in the paradigm of humanistic psychology and existential psychotherapy
Rositza Gerogieva, Nikolay Bavro
Abstract:
Creation and application of universal norms, standards and models for better life and mental health may result in people becoming uniform, manipulated and even exploited. Humanistic psychology and existential psychotherapy acknowledge the uniqueness of subjective reality and the right of the person to create and defend his/hers personal conception of well-being and prosperity. Here, we argue that the psychoanalytical homeostasis principle is inadequate for above-biological levels of human function. In the existential paradigm, these levels are considered to be most-essential for the human nature. They determine the character and the vector of the everyday well-being; the power and the magnitude of the ability to cope with extraordinary and tragic events in life.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
Why are we such?
Boryan Andreev
Abstract:
This exhibition is an attempt to answer the question why in all measurement of subjective well-being or happiness, we always determine the Bulgarians as, or as most unfortunate, or as one of the most miserable.
As an answer to this question is sought through literary texts, which are described typical features of national character, personal experience and specialized psychological literature. Described and discussed are part of the features typical for the Bulgarian national character.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
The Role of Symbols in Psychological Wellbeing Investigation
Nadya Mateeva
Abstract:
Wellbeing as psychological experience may be investigated by symbol and processes of symbolization, which are essential part of everyday human behavior. The explanations of people’s symbolic behavior through the searches and understandings of the basic psychological studies like psychoanalysis, analytical psychology, cognitive psychology etc. may be used as an additional support for research, seeking and finding of explanatory models during the formation of experience for wellbeing.
The idea of the concept and phenomenon symbol, called with different names in different theoretical psychological studies could be an additional contribution to the elucidation of the notion of psychological wellbeing. In some situations the symbol, conceived as "instinct", "sleep" or "ritual action" is in others "archetype" or "myth" in third - "Super Ego", in fourth - "monument of culture" or "creative message”, in fifth – just “action” or something else, but the various ways of its formation are often based on experiences, which are giving us the feeling of coping (or not so much), and successfull (or not so much) people. The general overview of different views and understandings of symbols in the field of psychology provides a more comprehensive and clear picture of its many forms and areas of application in human practice and therefore – to a clearer understanding of psychological wellbeing.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
Criteria for assessment of the effective prime minister’s leadership style
Slavi Binev
Abstract:
Article is devoted definition of factors of the prime-minister’s leadership style. Literature review reveals shortage of studies in this aspect and lack of well designed instrument in view to the dominating quality approach in analysis of prime-ministers behaviour. For this study is designed instrument based on criteria of effectiveness of the heads of the state by the means of expert assessments., This allows sample representatives to be ranged according to the effectiveness parameters. Assessment is applied for the 26 prime ministers after Liberation post 1989, when in Bulgaria the first relatively democratic elections took place. Further analysis of the results outlines four basic features of the leadership style of the prime-ministers – attitude of the prime-minister to the norms, which includes observation of the rules and norms, affiliation motive and personal honesty; power motive; emotions balance during decision-making and relations with external factors (experts and media).
Study will be continued with focus identification of the features of the leadership style of the effective and ineffective prime ministers. This will allow implementation of the instrument for diagnostics and prognostication of the effective political leadership behaviour in the role of prime minister.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
Determinants of gender-role attitudes, self-esteem and affective balance at adolescence
Eva Papazova
Abstract:
The aim of the article is to trace out and analyze the influence of the personal determinants as gender, age and socio-economic status on gender-role attitudes, Self-esteem and affective balance during adolescence. The studied subjects are 257 adolescents, aged between 13 and 20 years. The applied questionnaires are as follows - Personal Attribute Questionnaire (Spence, Helmreich & Stapp, 1974, 1975), Coppersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (Coopersmith, 1967), Affect Scales: Positive Affect, Negative Affect, Affect Balance (Bradburn, 1969). The results of the investigation has shown that the girls are more masculine, more feminine and more androgynous; with higher Self-esteem in the aspect "peers"; with significantly higher affective balance and lower negative affect than the studied adolescent boys. With the increasmeant of age the masculinity and androgyny has significantly increased; with highest Self-esteem are the adolescents in the late adolescence; the negative affect significantly decrease and the affective balance significantly increased with age. The adolescents from the Roma ethnic group are the most androgynous and with the highest Self-esteem in the aspect "school".
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
Parental stress in adoptive and non adoptive parents
Teodora Taneva, Krassimira Baytchinska
Abstract:
Till recently the public attitudes towards adoption in Bulgaria, as well as in most of the countries all over the world, was quite positive. Adoption is usually seen through the myth of “salvation” for all the members in the adoption triad. Recent research in the adoption field put the accent on the reasons why this “salvation” often turns out to be problematic. The purpose of the current article is to examine and compare the parental stress of adoptive parents and non-adoptive parents. The article shows that the stress of the adoptive mothers is higher in comparison with the stress of the non-adoptive mothers. The data interpretation is based on the reasons that lead to forming a dysfunctional model of family communication in the adoptive family.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
To deal with problem behavior in young children: An example with Parent-Child Interaction Therapy
Sonya Budeva
Abstract:
Suggestion material focuses attention on the importance of Parent-Child relationships in dealing with problematic behavior in children age 2 to 7 years. As an example of an effective therapeutic impact is used to Parent-Child Interaction Therapy in which the therapist is a mediator in the social reinforcement for change of parents and child. Considered in the theoretical framework, the nature and techniques of this therapeutic method.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
Psychological factors associated with subjective well-being in people with chronic illnesses
Maximka Racheva
Abstract:
Subjective well-being is at the center of much researches due to its relationship to such important outcomes as health and morbidity. The aim of this study is to explore the interrelations between social support, optimism, negative expectancies, health locus of control and subjective well-being in patients with chronic illnesses. The results indicate moderately levels of depressive symptomatology and life satisfaction. The positive significant correlations between perceived emotional, instrumental, actually received emotional, informational support and life satisfaction are established. The optimism is related to life satisfaction and the negative expectancies are associated with depressive symptoms. The internal locus of control and the believes that doctors have control over illness are associated with life satisfaction.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
Self-assessment characteristics of students working in the healthcare system
Silviya Tzvetkova
Abstract:
Self-assessment has a special place in the broad framework describing psychological well-being. It is known that the self-assessment has strong effect on self-respect and reflects on presented abilities and skills for success achievement that favors the self-contentment and optimizes the social significance. In this paper we comment on the results of our survey of self-assessment of students working in the healthcare system which are compared to the results found for adult providers of social services.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
Living conditions, life style, subjective well-being and burnout of middle and high level company managers
Plamen Dimitrov
Abstract:
In the context of European survey of conditions and quality of life the report presents the findings of a study on relationships between living conditions, life style, subjective well-being and burnout in a sample of 362 middle- and top-level company managers. The role and significance of aggressive-defensive and passive-defensive life styles as predictors of burnout and low subjective well-being is discussed. On the basis of research findings some recommendations to executive training programs, organizational change management and organizational consulting practice are made.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
Bulgarian adaptation of ЕR89 scale for measuring (Block & Kremen, 1996)
Zshivka Zsheliaskova-Koynova, Tzveta Misheva-Aleksova, Liudmila Chervenkova
Abstract:
The aim of the study was to adapt ego-resiliency scale – ER89 (Block & Kremen, 1996) to Bulgarian language. A total of 541 subjects aged 18-76 (292 males – 54% and 249 females) – 46%) completed the 14-item ego-resiliency scale. Psychometric characteristics of the Bulgarian version of ER89 are presented. Bulgarian version of ER89 demonstrated adequate internal consistency ( = 0.76). Test-retest coefficient was 0.70 in period of 7 months (n = 58). The Bulgarian version of ER89 is a reliable and valid psychometric instrument within Bulgarian context. We recommend it for studies in the fields of positive psychology, health psychology, developmental psychology etc.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
Social Environment and Work Satisfaction
Velislava Chavdarova
Abstract:
Social environment is considered as a main determining factor for work satisfaction. Work satisfaction is analyzed as an attitude related to the socio-psychological climate and employees’ discipline and well-being. The paper emphasizes the influence of two aspects of the social environment. On the one hand, it considers the impact of work environment components. On the other hand, it examines the influence of family environment on employees’ individual psychological well-being.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
Comparative analysis of self-esteem of Bulgarians, turks and roma
Zornitza Ganeva
Abstract:
Comparative analysis, by ethnos, religion professed, gender and age, of the self-esteem of Bulgarians, Turks and Roma under the conditions of a crisis has been made in the article. It has been measured with the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965). A total of 355 adolescents (151 boys and 204 girls; age 18.09 years), of which 122 of Bulgarian, 116 of Turkish and 117 of Romany origin, have been surveyed. The results show that the majority group has a relatively higher self-esteem in comparison with the representatives of both minorities – Turks and Roma. Christians and Muslims have higher self-esteem in comparison with the agnostics and atheists. Only the boys of Turkish origin have higher self-esteem in comparison with the girls of the same ethnos. There are no statistically significant differences by age in the self-esteem of the persons surveyed from the three ethnic groups.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
Stadards of self-estimation and global self-esteem
Margarita Dilova
Abstract:
Level of global self esteem, as measured with Rosenberg’s Self-esteem scale, was compared with self-esteem, formed according to the algebraic model from specific self-estimations. Ss made their specific self-estimations according to three different standards: peer comparison, real self /ideal self comparison and attainability of the ideal self. Real-self – ideal-self distance doesn’t correlate with Rosenberg’s self-esteem at all, and the correlations of peer comparison and attainability of the ideal self are significant, but low. Other possible determinants of global self-esteem are discussed.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
Subjective well-being of the Bulgarian in European perspective
Krassimira Baytchinska
Abstract:
The aim of this article is to consider subjective will-being of the Bulgarian in European perspective. Data from different cross-cultural studies in which Bulgaria took part from 1995 to 2007, have been presented. The systematization of data reveals that in comparison with the citizens of the new and old countries-members of EC, the Bulgarian is estimating himself as less happy, less satisfied with lower degree of personal realization and higher pessimism. The data are stable for the period from 1995 to 2007. In other words, in European perspective the Bulgarian shows lower level of subjective well-being. Last but not least some possible interpretations and some ways of increasing of subjective well-being of the Bulgarian are suggested.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian