Institute for population and human studies
 
  • PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH (in Bulgarian)
    PSIHOLOGICHNI IZSLEDVANIA
    ПСИХОЛОГИЧНИ ИЗСЛЕДВАНИЯ
  •    
    ISSN 1311-4700    (Print)
    ISSN 2367-4563  (Online)
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Volume 14, Issue 2 (2011)

SOCIAL STUDIES IN KNOWLEDGE-BASED SOCIETIES
Dessislava Damyanova
Abstract:
Instead of a summary, we will offer a tentative standard to render an account of the social sciences’ importance. Intellectual life in the social sphere takes form of a dialogue between reasonable people who may agree or disagree on some fundamental issues. The University and The Academy of Sciences are the most significant scientific and educational institutions dedicated to promoting this activity. In an open society publicity takes the form of a pressure, revealing the hidden grounds and preventing the irresponsible actions. What will be the strength of this pressure, however, depends on the willingness of a community to produce more rights and freedom.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
THE PROGNOSTIC FUNCTION PROBLEM IN THE SOCIAL SCIENCES
Blagovesta Nikolova
Abstract:
Practice, in its most general sense, requires reliable knowledge of the future. Thus the prognostic function of social sciences is becoming a serious issue regarding their legitimacy and benefit for society. Precondition of any foresight activity is the contemplation of contemporary age, which is rather complicated undertaking in view of: (1) the research subject of social sciences and the problem of reflexivity; (2) the transformation processes on a global scale and the accelerated emergence of new factors concerning the future of social reality; and (3) the selection of appropriate methods and the following interpretation. In spite of the aforementioned difficulties, social sciences should pay attention to those loci of regularity, from which stems reliable knowledge of the future in terms of practice requirements, as well as to the possible sources of system unpredictability, the contemplation of which could help any strategic action.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
FREEDOM AS A SHARED IDIOSYNCRASY IN THE PSYCHOANALYTIC AND LITERARY PRACTICES LAID OUT BY JULIA KRISTEVA
Petia Todorova
Abstract:
Julia Kristeva is a member of a psychoanalytic society in Paris from 1980. Her standing requires an enormous responsibility in teaching and transfer of knowledge in the context of the basic concepts of psychoanalysis. Her influence on the contemporary studies of the fundamentals in this particular field of humanities is exceptionally fruitful. However, the scope of this study is far from probing comprehensively into the subtleties of these rich and complex theoretical reflections. It is rather aimed at the in-depth concept of the psychic machine and treatment as it spreads and reaches outside of the pure psychoanalytic entity. This concept delineates her idiosyncratic approach to rethinking the human nature as well as other activities inherent to human behavior such as the creation of literary and art works, femininity, politics, the idea of the sacred, etc.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
SUBJECTIVE WELL-BEING IN STUDENTS FROM ARGENTINA, BULGARIA AND FINLAND
Ergyul Tair, Florencia Sortheix
Abstract:
This study was purpose on different aspects of subjective well-being among students from Argentina, Bulgaria and Finland. According to results Finish students were the happiest and satisfied with life ones and Bulgarian students were the unhappiest and unsatisfied. There were no significant differences between Bulgarian and Argentinean students in their levels of well-being excepting identification with other students which was more representative for the Argentinean students.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
AUTHENTICITY IN CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY
Nadya Mateeva
Abstract:
The contemporary society we live in, may be characterized with a culture, thirsting for sincerity and honesty in human’s relations, or culture wishing for authenticity. In many cases, in which we communicate with others – colleagues, managers, friends, relatives and etc., we want to know a little bit more about their experiences, and a little more about theirselves. Together with these, we often have a desire to be more free in our expressions, words, actions, and relations and with these to be more near to our actual self. Unfortunately, making these desires in a reality is accompanied with many scares and efforts for how we imagine we look like in others’ eyes and what vision have they formed about us.
Experiences and facts like these provoke at the same time our great respect and interest for their scientific investigation, and are a motive for developing the present work, which pretends to be a kind of introduction to a more deep psychological investigation of the construct “authenticity”.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
THE CORELATION BETWEEN CHARACTERISTICS-ROLES AND CHARACTERISTICS-QUALITIES IN THE PSYCHOSOCIAL IDENTITY
Boyan Vasilev
Abstract:
In this report the main thesis that a leading characteristic of psychosocial identity is the experience of a sense of belonging to the most important group for the subject (the group of the peers, professional community, ethnicity, nation). Through empirical study involving 62 students of I, II and IV course, specialty Psychology in the University of Plovdiv, were measured the ranks weights of 15 different characteristics relating to identity. It establishes a higher subjective importance of the characteristics-roles compared to the characteristics-qualities. However, the high rank position of the characteristic "I am loyal to my friends” we estimate as a confirmation of our initial thesis. Correlated with J. Marshia’s concept of identity statuses, empirical data suggests that among the studied persons dominates the status of "diffusion" and "foreclosed” compared to the status " moratorium" and "axchieved identity", which will be empirically studied.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
SUBJECTIVE AND MEDIA BODY IDEALS AND NEGATIVE EMOTIONS TOWARDS THE BODY: PREDICTIONS OF SELF-DISCREPANCY THEORY
Anna Alexandrova-Karamanova
Abstract:
The body image literature has accentuated in recent years the considerable potential of self-discrepancy theory (Higgins, 1987) to explain the mechanisms of negative body image development and the mechanisms of media influence on body image. This paper presents results from a study with 308 adolescent girls and 299 adolescent boys. The discrepancy between perceived actual body and subjective body ideal and the discrepancy between perceived actual body and media body ideal have been analyzed, as well as the relationships between these two discrepancies and specific negative emotions towards the body according to the predictions of self-discrepancy theory (body dissatisfaction, body shame and body discomfort).
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
PSYCHOLOGICAL FEATURES IN THE PROVISION OF INFORMATION ON TELEVISION NEWS BROADCASTS
Mariyan Tomov
Abstract:
The research covers the primetime television broadcasts of the Bulgarian National Television (channel BNT1), public provider of media services, and the commercial Bulgarian television bTV. The monitoring has been carryed out for a period of two years (19/28.03.2010 and 19/28.03.2011). Consequently, the same events took place during the above mentioned period. The events, in turn, are either covered by qualitative and quantitative indices, according to the editorial policy, psychological attitude of the spectators, the creative vision and professionalism of journalists or not covered at all.
The findings of the research enabled to work out a theoretical model which media follow in provision of the news broadcasts. General conclusions have been drawn.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
THEАT PERCEPTION AND RESPONSE READINESSIN HIGH RADIOACTIVITY CRISIS
Petar Kardzhilov
Abstract:
The subject of this paper is the knowledge and expected response readiness of lay audience in high radioactivity crisis situation. A fear appeal is a persuasive message that aims to scare people by describing the frightening things that may happen to them if they do not follow the persuader’s recommendations. The Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) helps explain why some fear appeals succeed and others fail. Based on EPPM and through empirical survey on knowledge and perception of risk, this research is trying to foresee the response readiness of Bulgarian citizens in case of high radiation emergency. In the course of the study, appears the question if a fear appeal within responsible institutions’ public communication about nuclear risks exists at all.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AS AN INSTRUMENT OF INNOVATION ECONOMY
Mayiana Mitevska-Encheva
Abstract:
The subject are engaged in research on process of business clusters in Bulgaria and forming a innovative culture. This is a study of clusters as an instrument of innovation in aspect of economy, based on knowledge. The hypothesis lei at the root of researching an organizational culture in a business clusters and on expectation that a new communication creates a innovative culture. Organizational culture has been regarded as a sure way to explain what is happening in the organizational reality at an individual and group level. The research results could find application in the organization of various forms of scientific research teams, innovating organizations, state institutes in the system of tertiary education.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
MODERN METHODS IN PERSONNEL RECRUITMENT IN THE CONTEMPORARY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
Vihra Naydenova
Abstract:
The article presents the modern and most used in the praxis methods for personnel recruitment in Bulgaria and European context. Introduces are methods as interviews, different tests, assessment center and the possibility and the need of their implementation in more organizations in Bulgaria. Discussed are advantages and disadvantages of different methods. Introduced are some of the practices in personnel recruitment of an international company in Bulgaria.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
LOCUS OF CONTROL AND ITS ROLE IN SELECTING APPROACHES FOR MOTIVATING THE PERSONNEL
Filip Filipov
Abstract:
The survey aims to find common ground in the process of motivating staff with theories of social learning and in particular the theory of Julian Rotter. Reason for this type of study provides the basis understanding that motivation should not be viewed only as a consequence of the action of the management but also as the ability of employees to understand, learn and permanently to repeat a desired behavior. Using a set of motivational (reinforcement) and cognitive (expectations) variables would lead to a desired goal or away from it and the focus is on what behavior once learned, will reappear in a given situation.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
RELATIONSHIP OF SYNDROME BURNOUT OF SOCIAL CONDITIONS OF THE JOB FOR WORKING IN THE FIELD OF SOCIAL SUPPORT
Stefka Doikova
Abstract:
Presented are the results of a study in six directorates for social assistance in Haskovo, conducted with a sample of 150 respondents. The main objective is to explore the manifestations of burnout syndrome and influence of individual factors on environmental conditions on the syndrome as a whole and its scales - emotional exhaustion, dehumanization and reduced performance. It was found emotional exhaustion and dehumanization disability - components of burnout syndrome are prominent among the workers in the field of Social Welfare Haskovo. The parameters of the burnout syndrome are similar in the 'Social popomagane "in Haskovo, Dimitrovgrad, Svilengrad, Harmanli,Topolovgrad, Ivailovgrad, whatever the difference in the pool of cust.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
THE ROLE OF PROFESSIONAL NETWORKS IN CAREER DEVELOPMENT OF PHD STUDENTS
Viktoriya Nedeva
Abstract:
Highly educated, motivated and mostly young people, the PhD students are the basic agents of knowledge transfer to business practice and hence, the main builders of the knowledge-based society. The particular importance of professional networks and the development of skills for participation and building up such networks (networking skills) for PhD students are close related to their need to constant exchange of recent and reliable information, in order to produce sustainable scientific products, ready to be applied successfully in business and social practice. In present paper an analysis of different kinds of networks is presented, as a base for the construction of a method for study the preferred networks, related to career development.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY:TECHNOLOGY OF SUCCESS
Viliana-Maria Nikolova
Abstract:
The increasing risks for the sustainable development and the crisis in trust between business players and pressure forces modify the concept for corporate (responsible) citizen more topical than ever. The reasons to intensify the sensibility of the civil society towards business behavior appear because of corporate negative reputation, industry’s scandals and financial collapses. “The good news is not news” is a media practice which additionally puts influence in that direction. In the said framework the report reflects the results of researches on social perception and attitudes towards business organizations; presents different aspects of the routes and factors which stimulate CSR good practice optimization, aiming to overcome the crisis in trust and the implementation of corporate citizen benchmark to be successfully done.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
GENERATIONAL DIFFERENCES IN WORK PREFERENCES. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS BETWEEN TWO GENERATIONS ON THE BULGARIAN LABOR MARKET
Mariya Karaivanova
Abstract:
This work presents the results of an empirical research which aims to discover and compare the differences between two generations currently on Bulgarian labour market – the generation now entering the labour market and the generation situated in the middle of its career development – in their preferences towards some job characteristics, organizational stimuli and work outcomes. First, there is a synopsis of the results of previous similar studies on generational differences. Then, the results of the empirical research conducted have been introduced. The results have been analyzed and the basic differences found between the two generations of respondents have been outlined.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF STRESS IN THE TEACHING PROFESSION, DUE TO BOTH JOBS OF THE TEACHER - AT SCHOOL AND AT HOME
Hristina Mihaleva
Abstract:
Stress at work is one of the greatest challenges to health and safety, which face workers in Europe. Bulgaria has many problems in the field of occupational health, but dealt with in this work is occupational stress inherent to the teaching profession. The topicality of the theme is predetermined by the fact that the teacher has two jobs - at school and at home. Posed problems in this aspect is not widely spread in national surveys. In the presented paper.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF OPTIMISM AND PESSIMISM OF STUDENTS FROM BULGARIA AND THE CZECH REPUBLIC
Zornitza Ganeva, Martina Rašticová
Abstract:
A comparative analysis by countries, gender and age of the level of optimism and pessimism of students from Bulgaria and the Czech Republic was made in the paper. It was measured by means of the life-orientation scale (Life-Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R) (Scheier, Carver & Bridges, 1994). 161 persons (89 Bulgarians and 72 Czechs; 85 boys and 76 girls, average age 21.9 years) were examined. The reliability of the scale applied was shown, too. The results show that, as a whole, the students from Bulgaria, both boys and girls, are more optimistically disposed in comparison with the group of the Czechs. Also, however, the boys of Bulgarian origin experience a higher level of pessimism in comparison with the boys from the Czech Republic.
*Language of the article: English
STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS OF ETHNIC IDENTITY
Esma Riza
Abstract:
The article is an attempt at drawing the structural components of ethnic identity with the purpose of further operationalizing and respectively researching the ethnic identity as a communal psychic phenomenon. The structural components of ethnic identity that are discussed are applicable to a multicultural context. They are differentiated in three groups – cognitive (self-categorization, social group self-esteem, and awareness of shared culture), emotional (commitment and attachment, evaluation and appreciation of own ethnic belonging, personal commitment to what happens to own ethnic group, vulnerability or sensibility to ethnic prejudice) and social-group components (shared attitudes towards own and other ethnic groups, loyalty to own ethnic group and its members, need of intergenerational transmission and succession of ethnic culture).
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
TIME STRUCTURING AND COMMUNICATION EXPERIENCING IN THE SOCIAL NETWORKS: QUALITY CASE ANALYSIS
Diana Bakalova Margarita Bakracheva
Abstract:
The popularity of social networking sites is challenging to all other forms of mediated communication and also to real social networking and face-to-face communication. Hence, we are bound to focus on the characteristics of both sought and obtained benefits (personal, social, professional) to e-consumers from their visits to virtual communities. In this article we discuss results of a qualitative case study on how users of Facebook perceive virtual communication with regard to allocation of their activities, i.e. time scheduling in the social network. Whether and how do frequency, duration and purpose of users’ visits to the social network determine their understanding of online social networking, and vice versa? The answer provides an opportunity to typologize e-consumers’ understandings of virtual communication in Facebook with regard to time scheduling in the social network.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
STUDENTS` MODELS OF TEACHERS` STATUS-ROLES PROFILES
Nadezhda Kaloyanova
Abstract:
The study present two institutional models of teachers` status-role models – young pupils` model and high-school students` model. Theoretically the research is based on the presumption that the teachers` profession is complex multi status unit. Status is an aspect of teacher in profession that consists of professional roles. Roles form the specific role scenario. The scenario is effective when is filled with adequate functions. The students` models are derived according to students` notions about teachers` professional status-roles and involved functions. The adequacy of the derived scenarios and the level of "compatibility" between the students` models and teachers` models are outlined. The latter have been already derived on the basis of previous studies. 200 pupils from first stage of educational stages and 200 students from last high school classes were examined. Research tools include conversation, method of focus group and essay on a given topic. For analysis of the results quantitative and qualitative content analysis are used.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
PEDAGOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE RELATIONSHIP SOCIAL SERVICES USERS (SSU) – STAFF
Natali Doseva
Abstract:
In a closed community where about 400 elderly people are placed with various somatic disabilities due to aging and with sharp personality accents, established household and hygiene habits, it is necessary to apply psychological and pedagogical approaches to achieve their adaptation , integration and socialization, and to work for maximum psychological comfort for both parties - staff and residents. Newly arrived people have to accustom themselves to new habits and adopt a different, new environment in which they are housed, and to integrate with new characters, large and small social groups at the floor and in the room - with the new roommate. Often the resources to cope with similar challenges have been exhausted and it is necessary to find an adequate solution and gradually, as if dealing with a small child, the person should be encouraged in his daily activities and if necessary to be corrected.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
FOR THE DARK SIDE OF SOCIAL NETWORKS
Sonya Budeva
Abstract:
Social networks are an increasingly popular form of communication. They are no longer little personal or professional networks, and large and permanent public arenas. The material presented focuses on the negative effects from communication in cyberspace. Discusses possible risks for physical, mental and social health of the individual. The author gives some ideas about the causes for abuse with virtual social networks.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
EVIDENCE-BASED PSYCHOSOCIAL INTERVENTIONS FOR TREATMENT OF ADOLESCENTS WITH SUBSTANCE USE DISORDER
Rositsa Racheva
Abstract:
The present report discusses the potential and the specific implications of evidence-based psychosocial interventions in the process of treatment of alcohol and drug-abusing adolescents. The main modalities that have shown to be effective in the treatment of this specific age group are analyzed – Brief Interventions, Motivational Enhancement Therapy (Motivational Interviewing), the 12-step Approach, Behavioral and Family Interventions and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy. The possibility for implementation of these approaches among the Bulgarian drug-abusing adolescents has been discussed as well as the necessity for research of the effectiveness of the interventions for this specific population.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
SOCIAL INEQUALITIES AND STRATIFICATION, VISIBLE IN MOUNTAIN TOURISM PRACTICES
Stanislav Intchovski – Tarnin
Abstract:
Bulgaria is a mountainous country. The capital is situated near to the Vitosha mountain. Mountain tourism is common practice in a leisure time. The study of different forms of exercise such as hiking recreational activity, allows to reveal the economic and social inequalities, that determine individual choices for a particular type of tourism. By summarizing trends become visible policies that maintain and reproduce inequalities. Historical overview of the mountaineering movement, shows the main ideological dominants in different periods.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH OF THE PROBLEM OF HOMELESSNESS
Miroslava Blaha
Abstract:
This article examines the contribution of social anthropology to the research of homelessness. The knowlegde of life on the streets gained by anthropologists has a great potential in applying into social practice.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
DEMOGRAPHIC AND PSYCHO-SOCIAL DETERMINANTS OF BULGARIAN WOMEN’S INTENTIONS FOR FIRST AND SECOND BIRTH
Elitsa Dimitrova
Abstract:
The study aims to reveal the influence of the different psycho-social and demographic determinants on Bulgarian women’s intentions to have first or second child. The analysis is based on data from the first wave of Gender and Generation Survey (2004). In two binary regression models we test the impact of age, education, ethnicity, economic activity of the woman and their partners as well as partnership status, place of residence and respondents’ satisfaction with the relations with their partners. The results show that age, education and economic status of the partners are the most important factors for the decision to have first or second child. The satisfaction with the relations in the couple is also important factor that can stimulate or discourage women from taking the decision to have a second child.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PERPETRATORS OF ROBBERIES THAT END UP WITH MURDER AGAINST ELDERLY PEOPLE
Lyubka Hristova
Abstract:
There is an increase in the number of violent crimes against elderly people in recent years. It is difficult to comprehend why the majority of the cases are robberies that end up with murder, characterized by outstanding cruelty exercised towards the victims. An important component in the investigation of this kind of crime is the careful examination of the perpetrator, the victim and the act itself. Through analysis of real case studies, a study will be conducted, considering the individual and situational factors determining the dynamics of the criminal motivation and the reasons for the escalation of aggression in the criminal act in particular. In addition, an outline will be made, demonstrating the basic socio-psychological characteristics of perpetrators of such crimes.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
TRANSFER OF EMOTIONS BY SPECIAL EVENTS
Olya Ivanova-Mokwunye
Abstract:
The special events are an unique kind of communication technology, which is planned and organized to achieve an aim. Their essence is in gathering people at a certain time, place and with a specific purpose.
In the communication model of the special events, essential factors include a beforehand agreement about the event between the recipients and the communicator, the expectations from the communication, the field of common interest and a field of real communication. On the field of real communication, a large number of communication processes go down on different levels: from the communicator to the recipients, among the recipients and from the recipients to the communicator.
One of the most important factors for the smooth execution of the event and its success is the interaction among the recipients (the audience) of the event. They comprise the synergetic image of the event (communicative synenergy). The interaction goes down on a number of stages, and one of its most-popular aspects is the transfer of emotions among the members of the public. With the transfer of emotions, known in psychology as emotional induction or also as “emotional contamination”, which is encountered only by the special events, the organizers manage to reach their goals more easily and faster.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
THE MEANING OF MUSICAL KNOWLEDGE AND MUSICAL PLEASURE ANALYZED THROUGH THE WORKS OF LAIBACH AND MIZAR
Julijana Zhabeva-Papazova
Abstract:
In the last two years J did two research’s in which the main subject were cover songs and albums: Mizar song White sea and the last album of Nouvelle Vague 3, and their live performance in Belgrade (2009). One of my main purpose was to understand better the meaning of music as knowledge not only how J experienced and write about it but to shape more clearly the main divisions of constructional competence (ability to compose, arrange and perform) and receptional competence (ability to respond to music in culturally competent manner that is ability to recall and recognize different musical sounds as well as their culturally specific connotations and social functions). In the area of receptional competence lay down the pleasure moment while somebody is experience the album through the live performance or through the CD or LP listening. The text content is present through the analyze of meaning and knowledge received through the listening of music examples. That was presented with two covers: Laibach album Kunstderfuge and Mizar song White sea. The basic method of research was the method of Philip Tagg called IOCM. The idea is to establish Inter-Objective Comparison Material of album Kunstderfuge and the song White sea associated to by a group of informant listeners. The general directions for comments were: first impressions and associations, music structure, cover/original relationship and gender relationship, pleasure moment and extra comments.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
THE MEANING OF THE PSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE FAIRY TALES
Ana Stefanova
Abstract:
The initiation is a multistage process with an archetypical nature, which finds expression in different forms of the human activities. One of them is the fairy tale. Through the theoretical apparatus of the analytical psychology, its stages could be outlined and found in the structure of the fairy tale. Its dynamic could be seen in the ritual and in the therapeutic process, as well. The storyteller is a Manna person, who creates a conventional reality – the storytelling situation. It is a reflection of the objective reality, with possibilities to influence it, but with its own characteristics and regularities. In it the transformation of the participants happens. Along with the initiational opportunity, the fairy tale has other functions, too. The psychological analysis of the fairy tale is important not only about the psychotherapeutically process, but also about the ethnology and folklore studies, where describes different forms of human activities, in the pedagogy, in the arts of the individual kind of culture.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
THE DANCE AS A NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION
Nadegda Petrova
Abstract:
The report asserts the idea that the communication is an integral part of the society and the major way of transmitting and receiving information. It shall carry and exchange thoughts and feelings, ideas and messages. The dance as an art form refers to the group of plastic arts where motions and the position of the human body are instruments for creating artistic images. The present report is an attempt to examine the specificity of nonverbal communication as a part of the information process and the dance as a way to transmit non - verbal artistic messages in the communication process. The most commonly used means of communication, stages and methods of feedback are explored. Special emphases are put on the gestures and the body positioning in the space.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
AMERICAN FIREWALKING MOVEMENT AND NESTINARSTVO RITUAL IN BULGARIA – COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS
Vesela Vancheva
Abstract:
American firewalking movement and Bulgarian Nestinarstvo are two phenomena extremely distant from one another in terms of time and space; each of them has its own history of genesis and development, its own forms of existence and stable internal meaning. This paper presents a comparison of the two phenomena and discusses the main similarities and differences between them, describes the unique characteristics of each practice, the desired effects and achieved goals, as well as the specific explanations of the fire immunity which the participants in both practices demonstrate. The analysis offers understanding of the psychological aspects of the subjective experience during both practices and focuses on the therapeutic importance attributed to the firewalking element.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian