Institute for population and human studies
 
  • PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH (in Bulgarian)
    PSIHOLOGICHNI IZSLEDVANIA
    ПСИХОЛОГИЧНИ ИЗСЛЕДВАНИЯ
  •    
    ISSN 1311-4700    (Print)
    ISSN 2367-4563  (Online)
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Volume 15, Issue 2 (2012)

Problem behavior and school and/or social environment at adolescence
Eva Papazova, Radostina Antonova
Abstract:
The aim of this article was to trace out and analyze the behavioural problems at adolescents from four different social environments: institutions for children and adolescents deprived from parental care), segregated school in a neighbourhood with compact Roma population, school with pupils of both Bulgarian and Roma origin (mixed school) and school with predominantly Bulgarian pupils (Bulgarian school). 309 adolescents were studied. Achenbach and Edelbrock (1979, 1991) Children Behaviour Check List scale was used. The results showed that the assessed girls were characterized by internalized behavioral problems, and boys were characterized with externalized behavioral problems. Most aggressive were the youngest adolescents (14-15 years old), and least aggressive were the oldest adolescents (18-19 years old). Most problems were encountered at the social environment at ICADPC, and least problematic was the environment at Bulgarian schools, except externalized problem behavior indicators for the second. Mixed school environment was not significantly more problematic than the segregated Roma environment.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
Aspects related to the specificity of psychological care in a hospital environment
Ivan Aleksandrov, Veronika Ivanova
Abstract:
This report examines the specific aspects of psychological care in hospitals. The study is limited to psychological interventions in times of crisis (most often an accident or surgery) in the hospital. The main focus is on two aspects: the first is related to the specifics of the hospital environment and the limitations it imposes on the use of psychotherapeutic methods and the second on specific psychological interventions useful for use in such conditions. The idea is to offer the development of techniques suitable for psychological work in a dynamic situational conditioned environment.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
Positive psychotherapy for resolving relationship issues for couples
Oksana Horvat-Stancheva
Abstract:
According to statistics, during the last 20 years the marriage as an institution has been in a serious crisis. The alternative form of intimate relationships is becoming more and more popular. Nevertheless, such kind of relationship is even more unstable than marriage. Research shows that more than 85% of the couples separate in their first five years together. It could be suggested, that the crisis is not in the marriage as an institution but the actual relationship between partners. This is where the marriage consultancy comes into play. In other words the psychotherapy assists problematic couples to handle their domestic problems in a structural way. Hence, they can ultimately avoid separation. Positive psychotherapy is a short-term and effective method which helps the couples overcome their crisis and improve the quality of their relationships.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
Theory of parenting style in developmental psychology
Zornitsa Totkova
Abstract:
Article outlines the approaches to parenting in the psychology of development. The author traces the development and the introduction of the theory of “parenting style” by Diana Baumrind. Baumrind `s parenting model consists of three basic parenting styles. Further is discussed the creation of two major dimensions of parenting by Maccoby and Martin and the differentiation of a fourth main parenting style in addition of the three main styles. Special accent is the model presented by Darling and Steinberg, whereby it is crucial defining a clear difference between parenting styles and parenting practices. In conclusion are summarized the most popular and commonly used parenting styles and parenting practices in contemporary society.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
Authenticity of Psychologists’ Presence in Their Clients’ Crises
Nadia Mateeva
Abstract:
The following research presents the key scientific ideas about importance of authentic presence of psychologists at their consultative practice in the process of work with different kind of clients at times of crises, based on secondary analyses of investigation of work of [11] Geller (2001). In his work, using some quantative analysis, it was created a new professional model, presenting the authentic presence of psychologists, at time of their work sessions with clients, in the process of consultation at times of crises.
This model includes three basic components. First of them presents the preparation of environment for authentic presence, which consists the pre-sessions, as well as the whole live experience of the professional consultant. The second element presents the process of authentic presence, as well as the activities, in which the professional consultant is engaged in his live perspective, during his authentic presence. The third moment presents the actual experiences of both consultant and client, during the consultative session.
From point of view of this model, the authentic presence of psychologists may be accepted as a base of one of the key elements of consultative process, together with empathy, congruence and unconditional positive regard, and as an overarching condition that allows them to be expressed. The analysis of this model allows us to put an aim of this work, to present this key aspect of consultative work and its differentiation as a basic element of the entire consultative process.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
Investigation on Psychological Well-being of Women with Breast Cancer
Zornitza Ganeva
Abstract:
Analysis of the psychological well-being of women with breast cancer in comparison with healthy women has been made in the article. It has been measured by means of the life orientation (Life Orientation Test (LOT–R) (Scheier, Carver & Bridges, 1994), self-esteem (Rosenberg, 1965), loneliness (UCLA Loneliness Scale, Version 3) (Russell, 1996) and mastery (Pearlin et al., 1981) scales. A total of 127 women of Bulgarian origin, of whom 83 at the mean age of 39.72 are in the 1st, 2nd or 3rd stage of the disease development and 44 healthy women at the mean age of 30.64, have been surveyed. The reliability of the scales applied has been shown. The psychological well-being of the women surveyed has been analysed with respect to: 1) medical characteristics (partial or total surgery, surgical removal of lymph nodes, presence or absence of metastases in them); 2) classical therapies (chemotherapy, radiation therapy and hormonal therapy) administered or not; and 3) application or not of alternative therapies (herbal medicine, physical load, administration of massage, lymph drainage, use of nutritional supplements, observance of diet).
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
Public relations and their role in tackling different types of crises through social networks
Veselina Lyubenova
Abstract:
In a world of globalization and advanced technology where information is disseminated in seconds around, arose a new crisis - a crisis of communication between people through social networks. Mediated communication and human behavior is responsible for active social change. The goal set in this report is to identify early trends of change in social attitudes, depending on meeting human needs. This analysis sets the task to look at how the internet and social networks of information became manipulators and what forms they acquire.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
Content dynamics of Facebook profile pictures
Diana Bakalova, Margarita Bakracheva
Abstract:
This paper presents some results of a larger scale project dedicated to the study of multidimensionality of virtual identity, as its focus is the study of both content and dynamics of Facebook profile pictures as specific “business cards” used for self-presentation by e-consumers in the global network. The subjects of study were 305 Facebook users – 156 women and 149 men, 18-60 years old. Content of their main profile pictures, incl. frequency and motives for replacement of pictures, have been examined for a three-month period. A coding scheme for visual content, developed by the authors, was employed. Findings reveal the central importance of the main profile picture for promotion of attractiveness of the Self and for impression management. Gender differences were not found in either profile picture content or frequency of changing pictures, but in motives for change of the profile pictures.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
Media influence on body image: Results from a national representative survey with adolescents
Anna Alexandrova-Karamanova
Abstract:
Media influence is identified in numerous studies as one of the most important risk factors for development of negative body image and related disorders (eating disorders, muscle dysmorphia, anabolic steroid abuse). The paper presents results from the national representative survey “Health behavior in school-aged children” (Vasileva et al., 2008) with the participation of 4854 students aged 11-15. Media influence (particularly daily media consumption of TV/DVD, computer games and internet) on self-evaluation of weight, self-evaluation of physical appearance, and attitudes & emotions towards the body, has been analyzed.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
The Bulgarian woman wife during the transition period (1989-2000)
Yoana Pavlova
Abstract:
This article is part of a thorough research of the institution of marriage and the change that occurs in the roles and relationships between spouses in the transition period (1989- 2000). As a result of the ensuing political, social and economic changes tended to return to patriarchal attitudes and values of marriage and family. The Bulgarian wife degenerate a complex habit. She must fulfill traditional roles - in performing household chores and raising children, but on the other hand have to work to support the family budget. Acknowledged her right to public life, and career development. The article’s aim is to trace how does marital relationships are formed and what role did women in them.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
The theory of grief from Elizabeth Kubler-Ross and its impact on funeral rituals of the Bulgarians
Doncho Donev
Abstract:
Elizabeth Kyublar-Ross differentiated five stages in overcoming grief. They are widely used in studying the behavior under stressful crises with intense character. In essence, the loss of a loved one creates this kind of experience. The five stages described by Kyublar-Ross can be identified in terms of structure and content in funeral rituals practiced by the Bulgarians. This fact provokes the understanding that the genesis of the rituals is strongly influenced by psychological and social needs, rather than religious beliefs.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
The Imaginary as a reflection of polymorphic subjectivity of contemporary person in novelistic works of Julia Kristeva
Petia Todorova
Abstract:
Kristeva concludes her literary work The sensitive time. Proust and the literary experience /Le Temps sensible. Proust et l’expérience littéraire/ with an overall reflection of the timeless multidimensional and dialogic nature of the novel. As a result, the novel has undermined the mythic and religious unity of the meaning as perceived by the interlocutor, which brings the imaginary of the subject in the western culture to an unprecedented state. She finds that this genre is most emblematic in its kaleidoscopic ambiguity relevant to every modern individual and that this is the best way to describe him in words. Therefore, the problem that the contemporary writer faces is to portray the imaginary as a reflection of this polymorphic subjectivity which characterizes the modern man.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
Social dimensions of leisure and psychogeography
Ivo Velinov
Abstract:
Author makes a reconstruction of motivated visits to Rila Monastery, Bulgaria. The present paper is to define the pilgrimage as travelling and necessity of visiting sacred places. Farther, the idea of devotion to sacred place is situated in the field of symbolical, theoretical and cultural representations. The main presented results summarizing a research of travelling processes in the context of Bulgarian Orthodox tradition and text. Dynamics of social challenges and being under the influence of the past register the specifics of social reality and leisure that may be operating in the time of hyper-consumption.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
The Social Role of the Catholic Church in Overcoming Humanitarian Crises
Dessislava Damyanova
Abstract:
Modern Catholic political analysts offer three types of strategies for building a peaceful world with sustainable development which include:
  • 1) Directing the peacekeeping efforts of the Church to horizontal cooperation with other security-related areas such as international development, environment, humanitarian aid and human rights.
  • 2) The role of Catholicism as a mediator in addressing international conflicts beyond the dominant militarism as a crucial element of a ‘peace propedeutics’.
  • 3) The need for new ideas and approaches to intercultural dialogue in order to overcome poverty and support geopolitical progress through non-violence.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
Job-situation – the Biblical Model of Psycho-social Crisis
Mariya Ivanova
Abstract:
Biblical story of the righteous man gives an model of psycho-social crisis and the challenges the religious man faces in a situation of an extreme trial. The topic I propose draws in academic discourse the problem of the religious dimension of the crisis and the opportunities open to people in confrontation with the absurd while searching the meaning. The searching for correlations of the biblical situation with specific stage of religious development of a man in relation to the stage of unifying faith is an attempt Job-situation to be seen as a necessary stage in the maturation of the individual personality.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
Political Transition in Bulgaria in the context of the contemporary political doctrines
Toshko Krastev
Abstract:
The report is an attempt to decode the sublevels of the Bulgarian party life after 1989, declarative / ergo functional / expressed in party-political platforms and programs. The center of gravity is the specific for a country in transition attitude of the citizens to policies and legislation. The article presents the views of the author of the real processes, factors and future prospects in the development of public and political ideologies as a means of communicating policies. As anideological product, the political party offers solutions formanagement, always / at least verbally / alluding to the human group and personal existence. All societies in transition are in social crises, the extent of which depends on the public perception of changes. One of the goals of the documents of the political parties is the statement of their intentions to exercise acts of government or realization of intentions for opposition, which in a situation of social crisis means to demonstrate ways of overcoming it and achieving sustainable development.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
The local authorities and the self-government in Bulgaria - between the national reality and the European challenges
Militsa Yordanova
Abstract:
This report is dedicated to the challenges facing the local authorities and the self-government in Bulgaria after the country joined the European Union (EU). The essence of local authorities and the self-government is clarified and also their place and role in the governance structure of the state. Тhe outlined major challenges are in the process of decision making in the EU and in implementing policies and legislation, made at EU level.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
Analysis of social climate in bank and scientific organizations
Teodora Lazarova
Abstract:
The quality of social climate in organizations is explained based on the tendencies for humanization of work environments and work relations. Data were collected by a 90 statement scale for a social climate-based on Moos’s research questionnaire (modified by Assoc. Prof. V. Rusinova, Institute of Psychology, Bulgarian academy of Sciences).
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
Psycho - social aspects of stress among health care professionals in an economic crisis
Elena Georgieva – Zacheva
Abstract:
This report presents an analysis of the results of some empirical studies for psycho - social aspects of stress among health care professionals in an economic crisis.
In our research we tried to identify the major determinants of work stress and working capacity therefore we have examined some sources of work pressure.
Emotional stress and exhaustion among health care professionals, working in lack of time and resources and permanent changes in the health system are problems which influence their performance.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
Focus groups in studying ethnic tolerance in business context
Nadia Mateeva
Abstract:
Due to its complexity and delicacy, the study of intercultural sensitivity from the viewpoint of obtaining in-depth, adequate, reliable and valid information has always been and still is a challenge to empirical social research. Мany researchers in this subject area consider the difficulties in studying cultural and ethnic differences. Despite multiple attempts, just few of them describe methods of elaborated inquiry of the influences of in-depth experiential and communication processes on indicators of ethnic tolerance/discrimination in work settings. One of the most employed methods for scientific research in this area is conducting Focus groups. This method provides an appropriate strategy for studying the wide variety of intercultural interactions, including the ethnic tolerance dynamics in organizational environment. Quite often, when it comes to ethnic tolerance research themes, the data retrieved through the usual interviewing and survey methods remain superficial and with questionable validity and reliability due to self-protective and self-enhancing response styles of participants. With the development of procedures for conducting Focus groups, this method emerges as one of the most effective in the multicultural research context. By its essence it provides both a reflective space for collective insights identification throughout the ongoing group interactions, and at the same time preserves and registers the implicit individual preferences of participants in the group discussion.
The paper aims to present the method of working in Focus groups and to reveal the main principles and advantages of its utilization in collecting valid research data in the study of ethnic tolerance/discrimination in business context.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
Stress, multiculturalism and acculturation in contemporary organizations
Stoyanka Shopova
Abstract:
This article presents part of a study conducted among 219 participants that investigated the interconnection between stress experienced at the workplace and degree of acculturation and multiculturalism in the organization. The hypothesis that there are significant reciprocities between perceived level of work stress, the degree of multiculturalism and the degree of acculturation in organizations was confirmed. Findings indicate that high levels of stress in organization correlate statistically significant both with low levels of multiculturalism and low levels of acculturation, and vice versa. The level of organizational multiculturalism, in turn, is in a positive statistically significant correlation with the level of organizational acculturation.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
Analysis of group efficiency in bank and scientific organizations
Teodora Lazarova
Abstract:
This review presents framework for team efficiency that illustrates recent trends in the literature. We discuss different types of team roles, group processes and team leader role. The article present research findings and the data were collected by 15 statement scale for group efficiency.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
The Role of Public Relations to Change Attitudes Towards Underage Drinking
Villiana - Maria Nikolova
Abstract:
The humanization of the organizations’ relationships with their audiences and the whole society, characterizes the most accurately the essence of public relations (PR) and distinguishes them from other forms of communication. Therefore, the initiatives to solve topical social problems like: support to social causes through the sponsorships promotion; contribution or donation for a community project; support to a programme for behavior change; direct charity contribution; providing of voluntary services to the community and socially responsible business practices are not to make an exception to the overall work of public relations. This report will reveal the increasing role of PR to influence the cognitive attitudes of the audience due to which general public to understand and support the efforts of the organizations in resolving crucial social conflicts, like the consumption of alcohol by minors.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
Pecularities in reporting the events in Katunitsa in two Bulgarian newspapers (“24 chasa” and “Standard”)
Milena Frenkeva
Abstract:
The present article deals with the comparative content analysis of materials reporting events in Katunitsa in the 24 chasa and Standard newspapers during the period 24.09 - 24.10.2011. It establishes the pattern of article distribution during the period, studies the characteristic features of media language and outlines the scope of the media topics. The words and phrases used to name the events in Katunitsa are specified as well the synonyms signifying the parties in the conflict. The article also analyses parallels with historical events from the recent and distant past.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
Rhetorical Argumentation in PR Discourse
Kremena Georgieva
Abstract:
The following scientific text, accepts rhetorical argumentation being essential for PR discourse. Communicational campaigns are build up by different PR techniques in each and every of which there is an independently developed rhetorical argumentation for the realization of which both – rhetorical and dialectical means are used.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
Crisis and unification: effects of PR communication
Lora Kalaglarska
Abstract:
The present study examines social-psychological deformations, which, resulting from unification in society, reflect on the behavior of small groups within it and are likely to cause extravagant, even drastic and provocative forms of self-expression tending to clash with the commonly accepted moral norms, thus provoking tensions and crises.
Public relations communication may help us achieve favorable effects in harmonizing the social environment, as well as partially overcome crises in relations between communities on a personal and social level.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
Science popularization in the schools environment
Magdalena Marteva-Simeonova
Abstract:
"Entertainment", "theatre" and "science" - sounds almost illogical when used in one and the same sentence. Most often children describe the scientist as a middle aged man with a white beard, mustache and hair, using glasses and spending his time working in a dark, dusty room. They cannot answer the question – what he really work on? They don’t really want to become scientists when they grow up. For these and many other reasons a crisis in communication between science and children particularly in the school environment is under discusion. Part of the process of overcoming this crisis is based on the science activities beyond the schools and school programs. The words "fun", "festival" and "science" should become a part of one sentence in a way the children could touch the beauty of science.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian