Institute for population and human studies
 
  • PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH (in Bulgarian)
    PSIHOLOGICHNI IZSLEDVANIA
    ПСИХОЛОГИЧНИ ИЗСЛЕДВАНИЯ
  •    
    ISSN 1311-4700    (Print)
    ISSN 2367-4563  (Online)
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Volume 7, Issue 3 (2004)

PSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS AND ATTITUDES TO WORK AND ITS ORGANIZATION
Vesselina Russinova, Plamen Petrov, Sonya Zhilyova
Abstract:
Demands for rapid growth and efficiency of work activity impose more attention to its organization and employees' attitudes to it. This issue is concerned successfully in economically developed countries, where standards of its investigation are established. In Bulgaria this issue is underestimated, but one reason for this is a lack of methods for estimation, so our aim is to develop methods for work analysis, work organization, management and satisfaction with them. In this article an approbation of the methods is presented, an attempt is made to prove their validity and interrelations. Results give grounds for the two methods to be used in evaluation on these issues. They will make possible for the management of these organizations to optimize work with human resources factor.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
TRAINING MANUAL FOR IDENTIFYING FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE
Tolya Stoitsova, Howard Pollio
Abstract:
The idea for creating this manual appear during the working out on a joint project between Institute of Psychology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and Department of Experimental Psychology of Tennessee University in Knoxville. The goal of the project is connected with the phenomenology of terroristic acts reflected in prints in three divergent cultures: Bulgarian, American and Russian. The idea is borrowed from the similar material of our American colleagues, who did it for English language. The team was headed by Dr. Howard Pollio, one of the famous psycho-linguistic psychologists in the US, who is a coauthor of Bulgarian version of the manual.
The manual offers a possibility for identifying 14 figures of speech. It is organized in 5 chapters, each containing the following two sections: 1. Didactic Section and 2. Programmed Instruction Section. The manual ends with an instruction for a practice procedure necessary for experts to judge the figures of speech in a more reliable way. In the Appendix, which is not included in this material and is prepared only for professionals who received additional skills in applying this approach, are given tables and charts for calculating the judgement congruence. In order to apply this manual professionals have to be trained in a group relatively long time.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT AND LEARNING POTENTIAL IN MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN
Vanya Matanova, Blaga Stancheva
Abstract:
The article gains an insight into some of the theoretical principles of the relationship between intellectual development and learning potential Taking this into account, in this investigation, the emphasis is placed on identifying the priorities of an integrated system of education for the mentally retarded children. The sample includes 60 primary school children from Bulgaria and Spain, who are diagnosed as having 'mild mental retardation. We highlight the importance of three main factors when exploring aspects of intellectual development and learning potential — the differences between the children studying in special schools (in Bulgaria) and mainstream schools (in Spain), the age dynamics and the gender differences. The results obtained show that the type of the education has an influence on nonverbal intellectual performance, and that children between the ages 7—9 differ from those between 10—11 old in their learning potential. The findings also show no significant differences related to gender.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CREATIVITY STYLE AND LEVEL
Eliana Pencheva, Sonia Vasileva
Abstract:
The study is focused on the relationship between creativity style and level The sample of 197 subjects above 18 years of age was examined with the Kirton Adaptation-Innovation Inventory (KAI) and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), MBTI Creativity Index (MBTI-CI) as well The impact of gender was established on the creativity index, on the dimensions Sensing-Intuition and Thinking-Feeling and on the originality scale. The greatest correlation was found between the creativity index and the originality (r = .34, P< .01), which supports the determined evidence for its key meaning in regard with the creativity. The low but statistically significant relation between total KAI score and creativity index (r = .21, p < .01) shows that KAI and MBTI-CI measure different but similar constructs. Age doesn't influence the explored variables while chosen specialty has an effect on them as well as on the MBTI scales Sensing-Intuition and Thinking-Feeling.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
DECISION MAKING UNDER RISK AND UNCERTAINTY: 1. BASIC THEORETICAL APPROACHES
Georrgi Mengov, Encho Gerganov
Abstract:
The study of decision making under risk and uncertainty began as early as the eighteenth century. This paper offers an overview of the research field since its inception up to these days. The authors have sought to present the key concepts and contributions alongside the interdisciplinary spirit in which they were brought to light. Much attention is paid to prospect theory of Kahneman and Tversky, which is psychological, but nonetheless won the 2002 Nobel Prize in economics. This theory is discussed in conjunction with its predecessors. Finally, some high-potential recent contributions are presented.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
INSTRUMENTAL AND EXPRESSIVE AGGRESSION IN BULGARIANS' SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS
Diana Bakalova
Abstract:
The present research has been methodologically based on Moscovici's theory of social representations as well as on both dichotomy and systematic comparison of theories of instrumental and expressive aggression. Research main objective is to analyse representations of instrumental and expressive aggression at group and collective (respondents' cultural specific) level Group (emancipated) representations are investigated depending on factors as gender and group membership among a sample of 490 men and women from 7 social and occupational groups (pupils, students, policemen, teachers / lecturers, physicians, prisoners and aviators). Collective representations are analysed by means of comparing the respondents' overall results to data obtained from other cultural samples (English and American). Bulgarian adapted version of an instrument (EXPAGG), designed by Campbell et al. is used to measure respondents' instrumental and expressive representations of aggression.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
INFLUENCE OF SOME SOCIAL AND DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS OVER THE PERSONAL CHOICE OF THE MODES OF SOLVING OF CONFLICT SITUATIONS
Stanislava Stoyanova
Abstract:
This paper presents some sources of conflicts, the stages of conflicts and the results from a research of the modes of solving of conflicts with Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument. The participants were some students and workers. They preferred to solve the interpersonal conflicts mainly by means of avoiding or accommodating modes. Some social and demographic factors like subjects' education and age influenced over their choice of a mode of solving of conflicts, but subjects' gender did not.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
SEX DIFFERENCES IN THE HEMISPHERIC SPECIALIZATION FOR PHONEMIC AND LEXICAL PERCEPTION
Ivanka Assenova
Abstract:
This article presents the data of personal research of the sex differences in the functional specialization of the brain for verbal perception in clinically healthy children in primary school age.
Twenty-four boys and twenty-four girls were examined in two dichotic tests - a test with words and a test with syllables. The results received provide evidence for the existence of sex-determined differences in this age regarding the ability for right perception of both types of verbal stimuli, the degree of hemispheric asymmetry, as well as in the predominance of the type of hemispheric advantage.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
PATTERNS OF PERFORMANCE IN TESTS OF ATTENTION IN CHILDREN WITH SPECIFIC LEARNING DISABILITIES
Bogdana Alexandrova, Evelina Bogdanova
Abstract:
The present study assessed components of attention in children with different types of specific learning disabilities compared to agematched controls. The results showed that normally achieving children outperformed the LD group in all measures of attention. The differences were most pronounced when executive functions were concerned. The LD subtypes differ in terms of short-term memory and attention span, speed of visual search and mental flexibility, yet the results obtained so far do not support the existence of different attention profiles for each subtype.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian
FORMATION OF THE NATIONAL IDENTITY DURING CHILDHOOD AND ADOLESCENCE
Savka Dimitrova
Abstract:
The purpose of the article is to present the basic trends in the research of national identity in the perspective of developmental psychology. Two theoretically different perspectives are observed in the field. The first one is based on the cognitive development theory, while the second one — on social identity theory. An attempt is made to introduce a new domain of research of national identity development, which refers to the paradigm of psychosocial identity and its statuses, suggested by Erikson, Marcia and Adams. The analysis of the researches allows to describe the basic trajectories of national identity development during childhood and early adolescence as well as the factors influencing this process.
*Language of the article: Bulgarian