Vol. 24 No. 3 (2021)

Initial data on the bulagrian version of guilt and shame proneness scale (GASP)

Published 04/15/2022


  • GASP,
  • shame,
  • guilt,
  • personality,
  • behavior

How to Cite

KARASTOYANOV, G., & KUZMOVA, G. (2022). Initial data on the bulagrian version of guilt and shame proneness scale (GASP). Psychological Research (in the Balkans), 24(3). Retrieved from https://journalofpsychology.org/index.php/1/article/view/11


The report presents initial data on the adaptation of GASP questionnaire that examines individual differences in experience of guilt and shame. A critical review of the literature is made and several general characteristics of the two constructs are derived, as well as two main approaches in their distinction – the first emphasizing the distinction between personality and behavior (self-behavior distinction) (Tangney & Dearing, 2002; Tracy & Robin, 2004) and the second focusing on public-private differentiation (Combs et al., 2010; Smith et al., 2002).
We found that the Guilt and Shame Proneness scale (GASP, Cohen et al., 2011) was the first to combine these two empirically validated approaches: personality-behavior and public-private, distinguishing emotional and behavioral responses through four subscales: Guilt-Negative-Behavior-Evaluation (NBE); Guilt – Repair (GR); Shame-tendency to negative self-esteem (Shame-NSE); Shame-Withdraw. The translation of the individual subscales indicated a very good internal consistency, a good factor structure, delimiting one main factor in a sample of 125 students from master’s programs in Sofia. The correlations between the subscales proved associations suggested by the authors of the questionnaire. Construct validity of the instrument was confirmed with expected presence or absence of relationships with constructs such as perceived stress, need for belonging, regulatory focus, global self­esteem and fear of negative feedback.


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