Psychological Research (in the Balkans) <section class="home-top"> <div class="top-info images-info col1"> <div id="topslideshow"> <div><img src="" alt="" width="402" height="502" /></div> <div><img src="" alt="" width="402" height="500" /></div> </div> </div> <div class="top-info col2"> <h6 class="textupper textbold">Published Since</h6> <h5 class="textupper textbold">1987</h5> <div class="textbold">Scholarly Journal of Psychology</div> <div class="textbold"> <p>ISSN 1311-4700 (Print)</p> <p>ISSN 2367-4563 (Online)</p> </div> <div> <p class="textbold">Print out:</p> <p>Two issues per year</p> <p>Issue 1 (January - June)</p> <p>Issue 2 (July - December)</p> </div> <div> <p class="textupper textbold">PUBLISHER</p> <p class="textupper"><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>BULGARIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES</strong></a></p> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Institute for Population and Human Studies</strong></a></p> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Department of Psychology</strong></a></p> </div> <div> <p class="textupper textbold">EDITORIAL OFFICE</p> <p>BULGARIA, Sofia 1113,</p> <p>Acad. Georgi Bonchev St., bld. 6, fl. 5</p> <p>E-mail: <strong><a href=""></a></strong></p> </div> </div> <div class="top-info col3"> <p>As of 2022, the <strong>Psychological Research (in the Balkans) Journal (PsyRB)</strong> provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.</p> <p><strong>"Psychological Research (in the Balkans)" (PsyRB)</strong> is devoted to advancing psychological science by providing an international platform for timely dissemination of important research ideas and findings. The focus of the journal is psychological research in the Balkans. Diverse countries coexist in this region in terms of EU membership and religion: countries with different cultures and customs. The specific problems of studying the psychological and social factors in combination with cross-cultural research will develop the knowledge of the region.</p> <p><strong>Psychological Research (in the Balkans) (PsyRB)</strong> goes beyond its original regional focus to feature high quality articles that address issues that challenging contemporary societies worldwide. It is a general-interest journal that publishes articles demonstrating scientific excellence across the entire spectrum of psychological science, including cognitive, social, developmental, educational, industrial, organizational, and health psychology, as well as cognitive neuroscience, and other related topics. The journal welcomes submissions, including empirical research articles, short reports, reviews, meta-analyses, replications and commentaries.</p> <p class="top-links"><a class="textbold" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ERIH Plus</a> <a class="textbold" href="#" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Scholar</a> <a class="textbold" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CEEOL</a>VINITI</p> </div> </section> <section class="home-bottom"> <div class="bottom-info col1"> <h3 class="title"><span class="accent-color"><strong>Forthcoming Articles</strong></span></h3> <div class="frth-article"> <h3 class="disc_title">MENTAL HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENTAL AVENUES OF YOUNG PEOPLE</h3> <h4 class="page_title">POSITIVE YOUTH DEVELOPMENT AND MENTAL HEALTH AMONG BULGARIAN ADOLESCENTS: THE PROTECTIVE ROLE OF CONFIDENCE AND CONNECTION</h4> <div class="author-name">Anna Alexandrova-Karamanova</div> <div class="art-date">June 2022</div> </div> <div class="frth-article"> <h4 class="page_title">DO WE PERCEIVE EXPERIENCING MORE STRESS IN EARLY ADULTHOOD IF WE HAD PERCEIVED EXPERIENCING PARENTAL REJECTION IN CHILDHOOD?</h4> <div class="author-name">Nadia Koltcheva</div> <div class="art-date">June 2022</div> </div> <div class="frth-article"> <h4 class="page_title">UNFRIENDING ON FACEBOOK: SPECIFICS, MOTIVATIONS, AND REPERCUSSIONS FOR THE UNFRIENDED</h4> <div class="author-name">Polimira Miteva</div> <div class="art-date">June 2022</div> </div> <div class="frth-article"> <h4 class="page_title">THE SOCIAL UNDERSTANDING OF BULGARIAN BILINGUAL CHILDREN - THEORY OF MIND PERSPECTIVE</h4> <div class="author-name">Hristo Kyuchukov</div> <div class="art-date">June 2022</div> </div> <div class="frth-article"> <h3 class="disc_title">YOUNG RESEARCHERS</h3> <h4 class="page_title">ANXIETY, STRESS RESISTANCE AND BURNОUT SYNDROME IN YOUNG DENTISTS WITH DIFFERENT WORK EXPERIENCE</h4> <div class="author-name">Antoaneta Vacheva</div> <div class="art-date">June 2022</div> </div> <div class="frth-article"> <h3 class="disc_title">RESEARCH METHODS &amp; ANALYTIC APPROACHES</h3> <h4 class="page_title">SPURIOUS CORRELATIONS DUE TO INTERNAL PSYCHOLOGICAL BIASES WHEN MEASURING WITH SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONNAIRES</h4> <div class="author-name">Georgi Petkov</div> <div class="art-date">June 2022</div> </div> <div class="frth-article"> <h4 class="page_title">PERCEIVED EFFECTS OF THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC ON LOVE, SOCIAL AND PROFESSIONAL LIFE</h4> <div class="author-name">Sonya Dragova-Koleva, Metodi Koralov, Martin Yankov</div> <div class="art-date">September 2022</div> </div> <div class="frth-article"> <h4 class="page_title">PERCEIVED THREATS AND DIFFICULTIES OF MOTHERS OF YOUNG CHILDREN AFTER 9 MONTHS IN A COVID-19 PANDEMIC</h4> <div class="author-name">Emanuela Paunova-Markova</div> <div class="art-date">September 2022</div> </div> <div class="frth-article"> <h4 class="page_title">FAMILY WELL-BEING DURING THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC IN BULGARIA</h4> <div class="author-name">Mila Maeva</div> <div class="art-date">September 2022</div> </div> <div class="frth-article"> <h4 class="page_title">GRATITUDE DURING THE COVID CRISIS - TO WHOM AND FOR WHAT THE BULGARIANS ARE GRATEFUL</h4> <div class="author-name">Katerina Atias</div> <div class="art-date">September 2022</div> </div> <div class="frth-article"> <h4 class="page_title">INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE: AN APPLICATION OF ATTACHMENT THEORY</h4> <div class="author-name">Maria Sokolova, Diana Bakalova</div> <div class="art-date">December 2022</div> </div> <div class="frth-article"> <h4 class="page_title">THE PERCEIVED PARENTING STYLE AS A PREDICTOR OF THE GENERAL FEMALE COMMUNICATION STYLE</h4> <div class="author-name">Stanimira Trifonova</div> <div class="art-date">December 2022</div> </div> <div class="frth-article"> <h4 class="page_title">THE ROLE OF THE BODY AND EXTENDED MEMORY SYSTEMS IN WORKING WITH TRAUMATIC MEMORIES</h4> <div class="author-name">Radostina Minina</div> <div class="art-date">December 2022</div> </div> </div> <div class="bottom-info col2 text-carousel-bottom"> <p><img src="" alt="" width="250" height="70" /></p> <p><strong>With the support of<br />MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE<br />NATIONAL SCIENCE FUND<br />under contract with NSF:<br /></strong>ДНП 02/38 – 28.06.2010<br />ДНП 03/57 – 12.12.2011<br />ДНП 04/29 – 11.12.2014<br />ДНП 05/ 14 – 20.12.2016<br />КП06—НП11/01 – 11.12.2018<br />КП -06-НП/51 – 18.12.2019<br />КП-06-НП2/2 – 02.12.2020<br />КП-06-НП3/ 68 – 18.12.2021<strong><br /></strong></p> </div> </section> BULGARIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES Institute for Population and Human Studies Department of Psychology en-US Psychological Research (in the Balkans) 1311-4700 SPURIOUS CORRELATIONS DUE TO INTERNAL PSYCHOLOGICAL BIASES WHEN MEASURING WITH SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONNAIRES <p>Estimations of correlation could be overestimated due to sample errors, measurement noise, and biases, but also because of the nature of the correlational coefficient. In particular, it is a dispute whether the correlation reflects a single common factor (or few), or that it may emerge from a huge number of common factors, including contextual ones, so many, that it is impossible to control them all and therefore, it is needless to explore them at all. It is a widespread method in psychology to use various questionnaires, assuming that they measure some not directly observable psychological constructs. In this context, some temporal factors like mood, the current condition, and some more stable ones like cultural or personal specifics may produce spurious correlations. Two known psychological biases – ends effect and favorite number effect, when answering to questionnaires were simulated and it is demonstrated how they could produce moderate spurious correlation.</p> Georgi Petkov Copyright (c) 2022 Psychological Research (in the Balkans) 2022-06-10 2022-06-10 25 1 10.7546/PsyRB.2022.25.01.06 ANXIETY, STRESS RESISTANCE AND BURNOUT SYNDROME IN YOUNG DENTISTS WITH DIFFERENT WORK EXPERIENCE <p>Dentistry is one of &nbsp;most prosperous and established professions. Young dentists go through the ranks new experiences, and feelings of anxiety, stress, and emotional burnout are especially common.Dentist helps to solve other people's problems and his work is subject to a wide range of stressors, negative emotions, dissatisfaction, nervousness, frustration, depressing situations.Purpose of the study is to examine whether&nbsp; practicing &nbsp;profession of "dentist" is &nbsp;factor in differences in levels of anxiety, resistance to stress and emotional burnout, and to what extent&nbsp; length of service affects&nbsp; size of these differences.Subject of&nbsp; study is to trace &nbsp;correlation between anxiety, stress resistance and burnout syndrome in young dentists aged 24 to 29 years.</p> Antoaneta Vacheva Copyright (c) 2022 Psychological Research (in the Balkans) 2022-06-10 2022-06-10 25 1 10.7546/PsyRB.2022.25.01.05 THE SOCIAL UNDERSTANDING OF BULGARIAN BILINGUAL CHILDREN - THEORY OF MIND PERSPECTIVE <p><strong>Background<br></strong>The paper presents a study with 120 minority bilingual children from Bulgaria. 60 Roma-Bulgarian and 60 Turkish- Bulgarian children between the age of 3;6-5;0 years old&nbsp; are tested with two classical Theory of Mind tests, with two non-verbal Theory of Mind test, wh- questions using the mental state verb “to say”, and evidentiality test in both mother tongue L1 (Turkish and Romani) and in L2 (Bulgarian). The Turkish children live in a small town and the Roma children in a village.</p> <p><strong>Hypotheses<br></strong>The hypotheses are that the knowledge of grammatical categories can help the children to understand the Theory of Mind and the residence facilitates the development of Theory of Mind in children.</p> <p><strong>Results<br></strong>The results from the tests showed that in some Theory of Mind tests the Turkish children are better and in other test the Roma children performance is better. The knowledge of the grammatical categories does not influence the understanding of Theory of Mind task. The residence is not a factor facilitating the Theory of Mind of Bulgarian minority bilingual children.</p> <p>The results from the tests showed that in some Theory of Mind tests the Turkish children are better and in other test the Roma children performance is better. The knowledge of the grammatical categories does not influence the understanding of Theory of Mind task. The residence is not a factor facilitating the Theory of Mind of Bulgarian minority bilingual children.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions <br></strong>The hypotheses that the knowledge of some grammatical categories could be a&nbsp;factor which helps Bulgarian bilingual children better to understand the Theory of Mind is partly fulfilled. The second hypotheses regarding the structure of the languages which the bilingual children use and how much they facilitates the early understanding of the False Belief tasks is also partly answers. The last hypothesis that the residence of the children is a factor for understanding of the Theory of Mind task is not confirmed. Both group of bilingual children bilingual show similar trends and that does not depend on their place of residence.</p> Hristo Kyuchukov Copyright (c) 2022 Psychological Research (in the Balkans) 2022-06-10 2022-06-10 25 1 10.7546/PsyRB.2022.25.01.04 UNFRIENDING ON FACEBOOK: SPECIFICS, MOTIVATIONS, AND REPERCUSSIONS FOR THE UNFRIENDED <p>The article investigates the reasons for friendship termination on social network sites, like Facebook, and analyses the aftereffects for the deleted person. Specifics in the online defriending process, like social media usage intensity, audience size, status, and self-image, are outlined. The literary review also reveals parallels between friendship termination stages in online and offline environments. Different reasons for Facebook friendship discontinuation are listed with their classification of online and offline origin. The online habitual behavior that leads to unfriending includes too frequent posting, scarce activity and too many game requests. Quality characteristics of the content like polarizing statements, obscene or attention-seeking posts are among the online reasons for defriending. Emotional outcomes that follow defrending such as being bothered, feeling sadness, surprise or rumination, are closely observed.</p> Polimira Miteva Copyright (c) 2022 Psychological Research (in the Balkans) 2022-06-10 2022-06-10 25 1 10.7546/PsyRB.2022.25.01.03 DO WE PERCEIVE EXPERIENCING MORE STRESS IN EARLY ADULTHOOD IF WE HAD PERCEIVED EXPERIENCING PARENTAL REJECTION IN CHILDHOOD? <p>The article aims to present research on the relationship between perceived maternal and paternal acceptance-rejection, psychological adjustment, and perceived stress in early adulthood.</p> <p>The sample consists of 322 subjects between 20 and 40 years of age (M = 29.42, SD = 6.41). The sample is not gender-balanced (248 women (77%) and 74 men (23%), almost all of them Bulgarian (295, 91.6%; 1, 0.3% of Turkish origin and 26, 8.1% missing data), most of them university graduates (235, 73%), employed (239, 74.2%) and married or cohabiting with a partner (246, 76.4%).</p> <p>Questionnaires for data collection: Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire, Adult, Short Form, both Mother and Father Version; Personality Assessment Questionnaire, Adult; Perceived Stress Scale, Personal Information Form.</p> <p>The results show that both perceived maternal rejection and perceived paternal rejection are associated with perceived stress in early adulthood. The level of psychological maladjustment is strongly related to the levels of perceived stress as this correlation is higher for 20-year-olds (r = 0.703, p &lt;0.01) in comparison to 30-year-olds (r = 0.668, p &lt;0.01). Several regression models are presented regarding predictors of perceived stress. All the models with predictors of perceived maternal rejection, perceived paternal rejection, and/or psychological maladjustment are significant. Psychological maladjustment in itself is a good predictor of an individual's perceived stress. The percentages of explained variance vary between 44.3%-49.1%.</p> <p>Most of our findings support the IPARTheory’s postulates and are consistent with the results of other studies. The results are discussed, and new questions are raised.</p> Nadia Koltcheva Copyright (c) 2022 Psychological Research (in the Balkans) 2022-06-10 2022-06-10 25 1 10.7546/PsyRB.2022.25.01.02 POSITIVE YOUTH DEVELOPMENT AND MENTAL HEALTH AMONG BULGARIAN ADOLESCENTS: THE PROTECTIVE ROLE OF CONFIDENCE AND CONNECTION <p>Positive Youth Development (PYD) focuses on the strengths and positive qualities and outcomes in young people. Lerner’s 5Cs model defines positive development by five aspects: Competence, Confidence, Connection, Character, and Caring. Research has demonstrated that the 5 Cs and other PYD dimensions are positively associated with positive mental well-being and negatively associated with mental health problems in adolescents. The aim of the study is to examine the levels of the 5Cs of Positive Youth Development and indicators of mental health (depression, perceived stress, and psychosomatic complaints) and to explore their relationships in a representative sample of Bulgarian middle adolescents (N=1517). Data from the Bulgarian 2017/2018 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study were utilized. Measures included the Positive Youth Development Scale – short form, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CES‐D-R-10), the Cohen Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-4), and the HBSC-Symptom Checklist. High prevalence of depression (35,6%), perceived stress (70,2%), and multiple recurrent psychosomatic complaints (57,5%) was found among Bulgarian adolescents, all being more prevalent in girls compared to boys. Depression, perceived stress, and psychosomatic complaints were significantly negatively associated with Confidence and Connection and these associations remained significant after being adjusted for gender and socioeconomic status. The proportion of explained variance by the 5Cs was 10% for depression, 14% for perceived stress and 16% for psychosomatic complaints. The identified protective effect of Confidence and Connection has important implications for implementing the 5Cs of PYD as an approach for promoting youth mental health and preventing mental health problems.</p> Anna Alexandrova-Karamanova Copyright (c) 2022 Psychological Research (in the Balkans) 2022-11-15 2022-11-15 25 1 10.7546/PsyRB.2022.25.01.01 Preconventional reading skills for 5-6 years old children from Bulgaria and Spain <p>The creation of the writing systems revolutionized the development of the human brain. Man learned to encrypt and decrypt information by utilizing additional symbols.</p> <p>Preconventional reading and writing skills, which develop from birth to 5 years of age, have a strong connection with later conventional literacy. Six variables have prognostic value for literacy: Alphabet Knowledge; Phonological Awareness; Rapid Automatic Naming; Writing Awareness; Short-term Phono- logical Memory. Five early skills also correlate moderately: Concept of Writing; Writing Knowledge; Readiness To Read; Spoken Language; Visual Processing (National Reading Panel, 2000).</p> <p><strong>The aim</strong> of this study is to identify the gender and age differences during the formation of preconven- tional reading skills and the correlation between the different components in children with two different phonological and writing systems (Bulgarian and Spanish).</p> <p><strong>The methodology</strong> of the study includes the use of the PreLec test in Spanish, adapted for Bulgarian. It consists of 4 subtests: 1. Knowledge Of Written Material; 2. Syllabic Awareness; 3. Phonemic Awareness; 4. Awareness Of The Written System. <br>In this study, 150 children are examined in the age range between 56 and 72 months from Bulgaria and Spain.<br><br></p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> There are no statistically significant differences between the four subtests. For Bulgarian and Spanish children some differences are observed in subtest 4 (Awareness Of The Written System) with girls performing better.</p> <p>No statistically significant age differences were found in three of the subtests (Knowledge Of The Written Material, Syllabic Awareness, Awareness Of The Written System). A statistically significant difference is only observed for Subtest 3 (Phonemic Awareness), most likely because at that age awareness of the phoneme level is still under improvement.</p> <p>For Bulgarian and Spanish children Knowledge Of The Written Material is in a moderate connection with Syllabic Awareness. On the other hand, Syllabic Awareness for the two groups of children is moderately linked to Phonemic Awareness. An interesting fact is that we find some differences in Awareness Of The Written System: in Bulgarian children, it exhibits a significant correlation with the Phonemic Awareness, while for the Spanish children it is in moderate connection with Knowledge Of The Written Material.</p> Katerina SHTEREVA Anelia IOTOVA Copyright (c) 2020 Psychological Research (in the Balkans) 2020-06-10 2020-06-10 25 1 Adaptation transition to kindergarten – significance and factors <p>Each person in his life goes through different stages of development, associated with different characteristics, performance of different individual, social and cultural rituals and achievement of different skills. Children go through their own stages of development, marked by specific characteristics and rituals. During these transitions, children are constantly adapting to the requirements and opportunities associated with new situations and stages.</p> <p>The adaptive transition of the child from the family environment to the kindergarten is associated with<br>many changes in the life of the child and the family. This period is often full of excitement, tension and<br>significant challenges, and requires efforts on the part of both parents and children, as well as teachers<br>and educators from kindergartens.</p> <p>The aim of the present work is to trace the different practical approaches for adaptation to kindergar-<br>tens, based on the basic psychological theories and establishing the influence of specific socio-psycholog-<br>ical factors related to these processes. Based on this - to identify effective forms of work and influence on<br>these processes and at a later stage to propose, test and validate standard and improved programs for the<br>application of more efficient models.</p> Nadia MATEEVA Copyright (c) 2020 Psychological Research (in the Balkans) 2020-06-10 2020-06-10 25 1 Food for thought in the ‘Bread and Circuses’ documentary <p>The article presents an empirical study testing experimentally to what extent good documentary films can serve as a tool for influencing deeply rooted beliefs and attitudes towards the Roma. The study is based on a rare experiment involving students and a series of discussions with teachers that fit into the theory and tradition of deliberation for internal and external change. The main conclusion is that the strong professional message of the cinema makes a positive shift in the attitudes towards the equal integration of the Roma. The film “Bread and Circuses” from director Jackie Stoev provides an example how negative attitudes of young people towards one of the most stigmatized groups in Bulgarian society can be overturned.</p> Boyan ZAHARIEV, Ilko YORDANOV Copyright (c) 2020 Psychological Research (in the Balkans) 2020-06-10 2020-06-10 25 1 School settings and risk behaviors оf school-children in Bulgaria. Results from multilevel analysis <p>The article examines the impact of the school settings on the risk of smoking, drinking, cannabis use, bulling others and the early start of sex life among the teenagers in Bulgaria. Data from the Bulgarian sample of the international study “Health Behavior of School-aged Children – HBSC” (2018) is used. A multilevel analysis (random coefficient mode) is applied to study the variance in students’ risk behaviors, which is due to the school environment in which they study. The results from the analysis confirm that the unfavorable school environment (lack of tolerance, mutual assistance and support among students, lack of attention from teachers, higher stress from lessons and homework) are associated with more frequent manifestations of risk behaviors. In schools where there is greater tolerance for drinking, smoking, cannabis use and bullying individual differences (gender, age, etc.) among children are weakening. The children perceive risky patterns of behaviors as normal and start reproducing them in the process of communication with their classmates.</p> Elitsa DIMITROVA Copyright (c) 2020 Psychological Research (in the Balkans) 2020-06-10 2020-06-10 25 1