Psychological Research (in the Balkans) <section class="home-top"> <div class="top-info images-info col1"> <div id="topslideshow"> <div><img src="" alt="" width="402" height="500" /></div> <div><img src="" alt="" width="402" height="500" /></div> </div> </div> <div class="top-info col2"> <h6 class="textupper textbold">Published Since</h6> <h5 class="textupper textbold">1987</h5> <div class="textbold">Scholarly Journal of Psychology</div> <div class="textbold"> <p>ISSN 1311-4700 (Print)</p> <p>ISSN 2367-4563 (Online)</p> </div> <div> <p class="textbold">Print out:</p> <p>Two issues per year</p> <p>Issue 1 (January - June)</p> <p>Issue 2 (July - December)</p> </div> <div> <p class="textupper textbold">PUBLISHER</p> <p class="textupper"><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>BULGARIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES</strong></a></p> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Institute for Population and Human Studies</strong></a></p> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Department of Psychology</strong></a></p> </div> <div> <p class="textupper textbold">EDITORIAL OFFICE</p> <p>BULGARIA, Sofia 1113,</p> <p>Acad. Georgi Bonchev St., bld. 6, fl. 5</p> <p>E-mail: <strong><a href=""></a></strong></p> </div> </div> <div class="top-info col3"> <p>As of 2022, the <strong>Psychological Research (in the Balkans) Journal (PsyRB)</strong> provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.</p> <p><strong>"Psychological Research (in the Balkans)" (PsyRB)</strong> is devoted to advancing psychological science by providing an international platform for timely dissemination of important research ideas and findings. The focus of the journal is psychological research in the Balkans. Diverse countries coexist in this region in terms of EU membership and religion: countries with different cultures and customs. The specific problems of studying the psychological and social factors in combination with cross-cultural research will develop the knowledge of the region.</p> <p><strong>Psychological Research (in the Balkans) (PsyRB)</strong> goes beyond its original regional focus to feature high quality articles that address issues that challenging contemporary societies worldwide. It is a general-interest journal that publishes articles demonstrating scientific excellence across the entire spectrum of psychological science, including cognitive, social, developmental, educational, industrial, organizational, and health psychology, as well as cognitive neuroscience, and other related topics. The journal welcomes submissions, including empirical research articles, short reports, reviews, meta-analyses, replications and commentaries.</p> <p class="top-links"><a class="textbold" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ERIH Plus</a> <a class="textbold" href="#" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Scholar</a> <a class="textbold" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CEEOL</a></p> </div> </section> <section class="home-bottom"> <div class="bottom-info col1"> <h3 class="title"><span class="accent-color"><strong>Forthcoming Articles</strong></span></h3> <div class="frth-article"> <div class="frth-title">Title</div> <div class="frth-button"><a href="">View Article</a></div> </div> </div> <div class="bottom-info col2 text-carousel-bottom"> <p><img src="" alt="" width="250" height="70" /></p> <p><strong>With the support of<br />MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE<br />NATIONAL SCIENCE FUND<br />under contract with NSF:<br /></strong>ДНП 02/38 – 28.06.2010<br />ДНП 03/57 – 12.12.2011<br />ДНП 04/29 – 11.12.2014<br />ДНП 05/ 14 – 20.12.2016<br />КП06—НП11/01 – 11.12.2018<br />КП -06-НП/51 – 18.12.2019<br />КП-06-НП2/2 – 02.12.2020<br />КП-06-НП3/ 68 – 18.12.2021<strong><br /></strong></p> </div> </section> BULGARIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES Institute for Population and Human Studies Department of Psychology en-US Psychological Research (in the Balkans) 1311-4700 Group and Personal Projections of a Strong and Weak Personality Traits, Well–Being, Need of Approval and False Impression – Retest Procedures <p>The current article presents the results of the re–test procedure applied to Personality Inven tory for DSM–5 Brief Form (PID–5–BF, Krueger et al., 2013) with two random samples. The first sample consists undergraduate students of the Sofia High School of Mathematics at 10 to 18 years old, while the second sample is consisted of Bulgarian citizens aged at 9 to 59 years old. The aim of the study is to reconfirm the accuracy, bandwidth and sensitivity of the inventory after wording adjustments of three state ments that have been made to. Some of the already published key correlates of PID–5–BF indicators were attested. The self–assessment measures demonstrates high levels of consistency, and the latent structure of the indicators is almost completely confirmed by the data obtained in the exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. New findings are also contribute to the nomological network extension process and the breadth and fidelity of measurements are confirmed. During the analysis was found that some of the ex pected adjustment and dysfunctional traits are moderately to strongly interrelated. A useful profiling model of two participants’ cases considering the psychological counseling of level of behavioral and emotional disfunctions experienced during the period of second and third Sars-Cov-2 spreading.</p> Krasen FERDINANDOV Copyright (c) 2021 Psychological Research (in the Balkans) 2022-05-03 2022-05-03 24 3 Civic Virtues as Alternative Forms of Behavior Within The Organizations <p>The main purpose of this research paper is to explore the alternative forms of behavior within the organizations as well as factors that influence their occurrence. The model of Van Dyne, Graham and Dienesch for the “active citizenship syndrome” is followed (Van Dyne, Graham &amp; Dienesch, 1994). The accent is put on the voluntary and prosocial character of different actions of the employees in the organiza tions. Three types of citizenship behavior are analyzed – participation, obedience and loyalty. The results of the research with 359 specialists from different sectors have good psychometric characteristics. The values for all three behavioral forms are within the mean: obedience (М=3,25, SD=0,70); participation (M=3,10, SD=0,67); loyalty (М=2,89, SD=0,63). From the demographic and positional factors, more influential are the age, education, total working experience and the sector. The human resources ma- nagement approaches are also analyzed as well as their relation with the occurrence of civic virtues. Key strategic orientations in HRM turn to be building trust between employee and organization, organizational structure, learning and development opportunities, the perception of the role and the function of the HR specialist and the formation of the remuneration. The results have practical implications by directing and provoking activeness and initiative in the employees as well as increasing the effectiveness of the work of the HRM specialists, organizational consultants, managers of different levels in the hierarchy, etc.</p> Bilyana LYUBOMIROVA Copyright (c) 2021 Psychological Research (in the Balkans) 2022-05-03 2022-05-03 24 3 Organizational Climate - Construction and Testing of a Methodology for Its Measurement <p>Organizational climate is a multi-dimensional construct strongly related with organizational ef fectiveness. The article reveals the main conceptual aspects of the construct and distinguishes it from the related concept of Organizational culture. After that presents a methodology for measuring Organizational climate, based on one of the established theories, created by Lawrence James and Alan Jones. The meth odology introduces a very applicable tool, customized according to the features of the business organiza tions operating in Bulgaria. The approbation procedure is based on a sample consisting 308 respondents, employees who work in different sectors such as machinery production, IT, healthcare etc. Report shows good reliability and validity of the questionnaire and make a strong appeal for its practical application.</p> Yasen DIMITROV Copyright (c) 2021 Psychological Research (in the Balkans) 2022-05-03 2022-05-03 24 3 A Comparison of The Adult Attachment Styles in Bulgaria and The United Kingdom <p>Attachment styles play a pivotal role in psychological research. Researchers indicates that a big part of the analysis how adult attachment theory is functioning in others is based on the patterns and models acquired and begun during childhood and the relationship with parents (Fraley &amp; Shaver, 2000) The present article focuses on a cross cultural study conducted between two samples - Bulgarian (N=150) and United Kingdom (N=120) populations. Attachment Styles were measured by items from the Adult Style Questionnaire (ASQ). The results have a theoretical and a practical implication – although preliminary, our empirical evidence demonstrates significant cultural differences in the attachment prefer ences: the UK respondents are showing signs of anxiety to be in a relationship and having some difficulty in sharing feelings with others. There are also more likely to show more signs of strong dependence, unlike the BG representatives who are showing higher results in Confidence and lower in Attachment anxiety.</p> Galina KABADZHOVA Copyright (c) 2021 Psychological Research (in the Balkans) 2022-05-03 2022-05-03 24 3 Trajectory of Early Development of Facial Emotion Recognition in Typically Developing Children <p>118 children ranging from 3 years and 10 months to 4 years and 4 months old and 118 children ranging from 5 years and 11 months to 6 years and 3 months old were studied with a Facial Emotion Recognition Task (FERT) with the aim to verify the hypothesis that emotion recognition abilities develop during the period of preschool age. The test required children to recognize the facial emotion expressions of the six basic emotions (anger, sadness, fear, disgust, surprise and happiness) based on naming them orally by the experimenter one by one. The results showed significant differences in the performance of facial emotion recognition task between 3-4 year old and 5-6 year old typically developing children, sug gesting agerelated improvement of the overall accuracy in facial emotion recognition, as well as of the recognition accuracy for all studied emotion categories, with significantly most prominent positive change for sadness and disgust, and the weakest change for happiness.</p> Ivanka ASENOVA Maria KOURTI Copyright (c) 2021 Psychological Research (in the Balkans) 2022-05-03 2022-05-03 24 3 Emotional Stroop Test With Pictures of Faces With Primary School Children <p>The present study explores the pictorial emotional Strup test with children of typical development from three age groups. The objective is to explore the factors that influence the processes of selective attention and interference of irrelevant information in the processing of emotional stimuli by children (N=161) in the age period 7-12 years. The results show that the reaction latency to stimuli with emotional content is significantly shorter than those of emotionally neutral stimuli. A comparison of response latency to emo tional stimuli with different valence shows that it is significantly shorter in the case of positive emotions than in the case of negative emotional expressions. The expectation of age differences about decreasing the response latency to stimuli was confirmed, which is associated with the development of executive functions, attention resources and the ability to control motor response, etc.</p> Evelina BOGDANOVA Maria ATANASSOVA-TRIFONOVA Jordanka LALOVA Copyright (c) 2021 Psychological Research (in the Balkans) 2022-05-03 2022-05-03 24 3 Relational Transgressions in Romantic Relationships: Men’s Infidelity Urges Lastly Caught in the Act <p>Human beings are naturally self-driven to seek, shape, and sustain meaningful interpersonal connections. Unremitting relational transgressions, however, may earnestly swing the very foundation of romantic relationships. The present research paper attempted to elicit men’s sexual and emotional moti vations for commission of infidelity. A total of 80 men (N=80) filled out a web-based questionnaire. 29 men (36.25%) acknowledged past experiences with infidelity, whereas the remaining 51 men (63.75%) renounced any extradyadic sexual involvements. The most frequently indicated sexual motivations were: sexual enjoyment/experimentation and variety (44.83%); infrequent sexual activities/unsatisfying sex life (37.93%). By contrast, the most frequently reported emotional motivations were: disengagement/emotion al detachment (31.03%); communication issues (27.59%); as well as feelings of unappreciation (24.14%). Contrary to common beliefs, sexual and emotional dissatisfaction as men’s self-reported general motiva tions for infidelity were equal (44.83%). The Cochran’s Q test did not reveal any significant differences between the mean values of general motivations (Sig = 0.190 &gt; 0.05 = α); between the mean values of sexual motivations (Sig = 0.253 &gt; 0.05 = α), or between the mean values of the emotional motivations (Sig = 0.976 &gt; 0.05 = α). Friedman’s test and the Independent-samples t-test did reveal statistically significant dissimilarities between the mean values of what behaviors count as infidelity according to the sur vey participants. Albeit men are often deplored for their sexual promiscuity and inadequacy for committed romantic relationships, the present research paper offered an alternative perspective on corresponding infidelity urges.</p> Simeon SIMEONOV Copyright (c) 2021 Psychological Research (in the Balkans) 2022-05-03 2022-05-03 24 3 Alexithymia, Anxiety Sensitivity and Mentalization in Individuals Having Diabetes Type I and II <p>The deficits in emotional processing have emerged as researcher’s interest, due to the fact that they have a significant role on the regulation and the quality of the overall mental functioning of individu als. They could lead to negative consequences both for the clinical course and for the treatment’s out come of various psychosomatic diseases, including Diabetes. This chronic disease has a highly growing prevalence all over the world, leading to impaired quality of patients’ lives. The research and knowledge of the levels of alexithymia, anxiety sensitivity and mentalization in individuals with Diabetes would be advantageous by informing different individualized approaches in the clinical practice. The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of alexithymia, anxiety sensitivity and mentalization and their associa tions. We tested patients having Diabetes type I and II and healthy controls using self – report measures Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS - 20), Anxiety Sensitivity Index and Mentalized Affectivity Scale (MAS). The findings of the present study support the view that individuals with Diabetes showed higher levels of alexithymia and anxiety sensitivity and lower levels of mentalized affectivity. No connection was found between alexithymia and anxiety sensitivity; anxiety sensitivity and mentalized affectivity. These results were similar for both groups. The expectation of an association between higher levels of alexithymia and lower levels of mentalized affectivity was partially confirmed.</p> Maya IGNATOVA Svetoslav SAVOV Copyright (c) 2021 Psychological Research (in the Balkans) 2022-05-03 2022-05-03 24 3 Scales For Measuring Beliefs About Coronavirus and Behaviors in Coronavirus Pandemic: Adaptation and Validation <p>A hundred years after the Spanish flu pandemic, the world faces a new similar threat in the form of COVID-19. During this time, culture, technology, medicine, the political regimes of many societies have changed dramatically, the Internet has appeared, information and knowledge are more easily accessible than ever. However, have people achieved a deeper change in the way they react when placed in a life-threatening situation? Do they behave in a more competent and rational way or do they rely on old and stereotypically established behaviors? Such issues are relevant not only for Bulgaria. The two presented questionnaires were used in the large international project „COVID-19, personality and quality of life: Selfenhancement in the time of a pandemic“. They are designed to measure some misbeliefs, including levels of magical (or, perhaps more precisely in this specific case, naïve) and conspiratorial beliefs about COVID-19, and to describe typical behaviors related to prevention and to social support. The adapted total of 5 scales have good psychometric qualities, the expected correlations with content-related constructs are confirmed. The obtained results give solid evidence that the questionnaires are reliable, valid and appropriate and adequate for use in the Bulgarian socio-cultural environment.</p> Metodi KORALOV Copyright (c) 2021 Psychological Research (in the Balkans) 2022-05-03 2022-05-03 24 3 The Trust Crisis: Threats and Opportunities for Coping With the Emergency Situation Caused By Covid-19 <p>The World Values Survey shows that over the past 30 years, people around the world have be come increasingly distrustful. Bulgarians rank first in lack of social trust in Europe, with over 80% of those surveyed generally not trusting other people, nor in mutual help and altruism between them. The crisis caused by COVID-19 in March 2020 poses new challenges to the Bulgarian society that may deepen the trust crisis, but they might also help to overcome it. The report presents two scenarios: the first presents the threats and the areas of conflict of deepening the trust crisis as a consequence of the health, and the follow ing economic and political crises caused by COVID-19; and the second presents an unconventional and more optimistic view of the pandemic as an opportunity to overcome particular aspects of the trust crisis.<br>The paper applies, on the one hand, personality theory, which views trustworthiness as a personality trait of the individual, and, on the other hand, societal theory, according to which public trust depends on levels of social division: income equality, ethnic homogeneity, degree of democratic government, political freedom, etc.<br>The analysis aims to draw attention to the topic of trust and to show its crucial importance in different areas of human relations.</p> Vesselina KACHAKOVA Copyright (c) 2021 Psychological Research (in the Balkans) 2022-05-03 2022-05-03 24 3