Vol. 24 No. 2 (2021)
Articles

Civic Virtues as Alternative Forms of Behavior Within The Organizations

Published 05/03/2022

Keywords

  • participation,
  • obedience,
  • loyalty,
  • human resources management

How to Cite

LYUBOMIROVA, B. (2022). Civic Virtues as Alternative Forms of Behavior Within The Organizations. Psychological Research (in the Balkans), 24(2). Retrieved from https://journalofpsychology.org/index.php/1/article/view/28

Abstract

The main purpose of this research paper is to explore the alternative forms of behavior within the organizations as well as factors that influence their occurrence. The model of Van Dyne, Graham and Dienesch for the “active citizenship syndrome” is followed (Van Dyne, Graham & Dienesch, 1994). The accent is put on the voluntary and prosocial character of different actions of the employees in the organiza tions. Three types of citizenship behavior are analyzed – participation, obedience and loyalty. The results of the research with 359 specialists from different sectors have good psychometric characteristics. The values for all three behavioral forms are within the mean: obedience (М=3,25, SD=0,70); participation (M=3,10, SD=0,67); loyalty (М=2,89, SD=0,63). From the demographic and positional factors, more influential are the age, education, total working experience and the sector. The human resources ma- nagement approaches are also analyzed as well as their relation with the occurrence of civic virtues. Key strategic orientations in HRM turn to be building trust between employee and organization, organizational structure, learning and development opportunities, the perception of the role and the function of the HR specialist and the formation of the remuneration. The results have practical implications by directing and provoking activeness and initiative in the employees as well as increasing the effectiveness of the work of the HRM specialists, organizational consultants, managers of different levels in the hierarchy, etc.

References

  1. Alexandrova, B. (2017). Organizatsionno grazhdansko povedenie: sаshnost, predpostavki i posledstviya. [Organizational citizenship be­havior: Its nature, antecedents and consequenc­ es. (O. Harizanova, Editor) Annual of Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski”, Faculty of Philosophy, Book PhD Students, 2016-1, 196 – 212] (In Bulgarian).
  2. Alexandrova, B. (2018). Podhodi v upravleni­eto na choveshkite resursi za formirane na or­ ganizatsionno grazhdansko povedenie. [Human resources management approaches for the for­mation of organziational citizenship behavior. PhD Dissertation] (In Bulgarian).
  3. Ilieva, S. (1999). Vliyanie na organizatsionnata kultura vаrhu grazhdanskoto povedenie v organi­ zatsiyata. [Influence of the organizational culture on the citizenship behavior in the organization. Annual of Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohrids­ ki“, Book Psychology, 92, 5 – 22] (In Bulgarian).
  4. Ilieva, S. (2000). Grazhdanskoto povedenie v organizatsiyata – kriteriy za uspehsno upravle­nie na choveskite resursi. [Citizenship behavior in the organization – criteria for successful hu­ man resources management. Human resources management – importantant criteria for Euro­ pean integration, (pp. 181 – 184). Varna] (In Bulgarian).
  5. Ilieva, S. (2006a). Organizatsionna kultura: Sashnost, funktsii i promyana. [Organizational culture: Its nature, functions and change. Sofia: University Press “St. Kliment Ohridski”] (In Bulgarian).
  6. Ilieva, S. (2006b). Organizatsionno grazhdan­ sko povedenie – sashnost, izmervane I determi­nanti. [Organizational citizenship behavior; Its nature, measurement and determinants. Psycho­ logical Research, 1, 5 – 21] (In Bulgarian).
  7. Iliеva, S. & Topuzova, I. (2016). Organizatsion­ na efektivnost I motivatsiya na universitetskite prepodavateli. [Organizational effectiveness and motivation of university teachers. In: S. Ilieva,
  8. Y. Yankulova & M. R. Markovich (Eds.), Inter­national scientific conference “Leadership and organizational development” (pp. 90-98). Sofia: UP “St. Kliment Ohridski”] (In Bulgarian)
  9. Rigio, R. (2006). Vavedenie v industrialnata/ organizatsionnata psihologiya. [Introduction to industrial/organizational psychology. Sofia: Dilok] (In Bulgarian).
  10. Ahmad, K. Z. (2011). The association between training and organizational citizenship behav­ior in the digital world. Communications of the IBIMA, 1-11. Retrieved from http://www.ibima­publishing.com/journals/CIBIMA/cibima.html
  11. Alexandrova, B. (2016). Human resource man­agement and organizational citizenship behav­ior. In S. Karavidic, S. Ilieva & M. C. Karavidic (Ed.), Achieving excellence in education, em­ployment and human resource management (pp. 232-243). Belgrade: Faculty of Business Eco­nomics and Entrepreneurship Belgrade; Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski”.
  12. Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American Psychologist, 37, 122 – 147.
  13. Bateman, T. & Organ, D. (1983). Job satisfac­ tion and the good soldier: The relationships be­tween affect and “citizenship”. The Academy of Management Journal, 26, 587 – 595.
  14. Boyatzis, R. E. (1982). The Competent Man­ ager. New York: Wiley.
  15. Brief, A. & Motowidlo, S. (1986). Prosocial or­ ganizational behavior. The Academy of Manage­ ment Review, 11, 710-725.
  16. Evans, W. R. & Davis, W. D. (2005). High-performance work systems and organizational performance: The mediating role of internal social structure. Journal of Management, 31(5), 758 – 775.
  17. Farmer, A. & Kali, R. (2016). Collegiality in organizations: an economic approach to orga­nizational citizenship behavior. Economics and Sociology, 9(2), 220 – 231.
  18. George, J. & Brief, A. (1992). Feeling good - doing good: A conceptual analysis of mood at work-organizational spontaneity relationship. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 310 – 329.
  19. Gist, M. E. (1987). Self-efficacy: Implications for organizational behavior and human resource management. Academy of Management Review, 12(3), 472 – 485.
  20. Gomez-Mejia, L., Ballein, D. & Cardy, R. (2012). Managing Human Resources (7th ed.). Pearson Education.
  21. Guest, D. (1987). Human resource management and industrial relations. Journal of Management Studies, 24(5), 503 – 521.
  22. Katz, D. & Kahn, R. (1966;1978). The social psychology of organizations. New York: Wiley.
  23. Organ, D. (1988). Organizational citizenship behavior: The good soldier syndrome. Lexing­ ton, MA: Lexington Books.
  24. Podsakoff, P., MacKenzie, S., Paine, J. B. & Bachrach, D. (2000). Organizational citizen­ ship behaviors: A critical review of the theoreti­cal and empirical literature and suggestions for future research. Journal of Management, 26(3), 513 – 563.
  25. Puffer, S. (1987). Prosocial behavior, non-com­ pliant behavior, and work performance among commission salespeople. Journal of Applied Psychology, 72, 615 – 621.
  26. Smith, A., Organ, D. & Near, J. (1983). Or­ganizational citizenship behavior: Its nature and antecedents. Journal of Applied Psychology, 68(4), 653– 663.
  27. Snape, E. & Redman, T. (2010). HRM prac­tices, organizational citizenship behaviour, and performance: A multi-level analysis. Journal of Management Studies, 47(7), 1219 – 1247.
  28. Van Dyne, L., Graham, J. & Dienesch, R.
  29. (1994). Organizational citizenship behav­ior: Construct redefinition, measurement, and validation. Academy of Management Journal, 37(4), 765 – 802.
  30. Wright, P. M. & Kehoe, R. (2007). Human resource practices and organizational commit­ ment: A deeper examination. CAHRS Working Paper #07-15.
  31. Zhu, Y. (2013). Individual behavior: In-role and extra-role. International Journal of Business Administration, 4(1), 23 – 27.