Vol. 24 No. 2 (2021)

Civic Virtues as Alternative Forms of Behavior Within The Organizations

Published 05/03/2022


  • participation,
  • obedience,
  • loyalty,
  • human resources management

How to Cite

LYUBOMIROVA, B. (2022). Civic Virtues as Alternative Forms of Behavior Within The Organizations. Psychological Research (in the Balkans), 24(2). Retrieved from https://journalofpsychology.org/index.php/1/article/view/28


The main purpose of this research paper is to explore the alternative forms of behavior within the organizations as well as factors that influence their occurrence. The model of Van Dyne, Graham and Dienesch for the “active citizenship syndrome” is followed (Van Dyne, Graham & Dienesch, 1994). The accent is put on the voluntary and prosocial character of different actions of the employees in the organiza tions. Three types of citizenship behavior are analyzed – participation, obedience and loyalty. The results of the research with 359 specialists from different sectors have good psychometric characteristics. The values for all three behavioral forms are within the mean: obedience (М=3,25, SD=0,70); participation (M=3,10, SD=0,67); loyalty (М=2,89, SD=0,63). From the demographic and positional factors, more influential are the age, education, total working experience and the sector. The human resources ma- nagement approaches are also analyzed as well as their relation with the occurrence of civic virtues. Key strategic orientations in HRM turn to be building trust between employee and organization, organizational structure, learning and development opportunities, the perception of the role and the function of the HR specialist and the formation of the remuneration. The results have practical implications by directing and provoking activeness and initiative in the employees as well as increasing the effectiveness of the work of the HRM specialists, organizational consultants, managers of different levels in the hierarchy, etc.


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