Vol. 25 No. 3 (2022)


Published 09/12/2022


  • mind of the analyst,
  • case load,
  • interferences between sessions,
  • therapeutic field and psychic transformations

How to Cite

Todorov, O. (2022). A DAY IN A LIFE: THE MIND OF THE ANALYST AND THE THERAPEUTIC PROCESS DURING THE WORKING DAY. Psychological Research (in the Balkans), 25(3). https://doi.org/10.7546/PsyRB.2022.25.03.01


This paper presents closely and directly as possible the therapist’s everyday work with several patients, within the framework of a working day. The clinical material is accompanied by ongoing reflections, simultaneous and after the fact, on the development and specificity of the therapeutic process. The author advances the idea that the exploration of the working day, viewed as interactional mental field, is a legitimate and useful tool for the study of the therapeutic process, particularly those aspects related to the therapist’s professional and mental functioning, referred here as “the mind of the analyst”. The focal point is the possibility to see how untransformed psychic experiences produced between patient and psychotherapist during a particular session, create “mental residues” in the “mind of the analyst” and to study their fate all through the day. Although, the approach is predominantly therapist-centered, according to the concept of the field, it also presents important information on the workings of the minds of the patients, the vicissitudes of therapeutic interactions and ultimately, on the nature of psychic transformations. In the conclusive section, some broader applications for the clinical practice and research, related to the study of the working day are suggested.


  1. Andrade De Azevedo, A. (1994). Validation of the Psychoanalytic Clinical Process: The Role of Dreams. Int. J. Psycho-Anal., 75:1181-1192.
  2. Akhtar, S. (ed.) (2012). The Mother and Her Child: Clinical Aspects of Attachment, Separation, and Loss. New York: Jason Aronson.
  3. Arlow, J.A. (1993). Two Discussions of 'The Mind of the Analyst' and a Response from Madeleine Baranger. Int. J. Psycho-Anal., 74:1147-1155.
  4. Aron, L. (2003). The Paradoxical Place of Enactment in Psychoanalysis: Introduction. Psychoanal. Dial., 13(5):623-631.
  5. Baranger, M. (1993). The Mind of the Analyst: From Listening to Interpretation. Int. J. Psycho-Anal., 74:15-24.
  6. Baranger, M. & Baranger, W. (2008). The Analytic Situation as a Dynamic Field. Int. J. Psycho-Anal., 89(4): 795-826.
  7. Bellin, E.H. (1984). The Psychoanalytic Narrative: On the Transformational Axis Between Writing and Speech. Psychoanal. Contemp. Thought, 7(1): 3-42.
  8. Bion, W.R. (1962). Learning from Experience. London: Tavistock.
  9. Bion, W.R. (1965). Transformations. London: Tavistock.
  10. Birksted-Breen, D. (2009). ‘Reverberation Time’, Dreaming and the Capacity to Dream. Int. J. Psycho-Anal., 90(1): 35-51.
  11. Birksted-Breen, D. (2012). Taking Time: the Tempo of Psychoanalysis. Int. J. Psycho-Anal., 93: 819-836.
  12. Birksted-Breen, D. (2016). Bi-Ocularity, the Functioning Mind of the Psychoanalyst. Int. J. Psycho- Anal., 97(1): 25-40.
  13. Bleiberg, J.R. & Baker, M.N. (2008). Working Through Co-Transferences in Inadvertent or Unavoidable Multiple Relationships. Int. J. Psychoanal. Self Psychol., 3(4): 465-487.
  14. Bloom-Feshbach, J. & Bloom-Feshbach, S. (1987). The Psychology of Separation and Loss: Perspectives on Development, Life transitions, and Clinical Practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  15. Britton, R. (1994). Publication Anxiety: Conflict Between Communication and Affiliation. Int. J. Psycho-Anal., 75: 1213-1224.
  16. Brown, L.J. (2019). Transformational processes in Clinical Psychoanalysis: Dreaming, Emotions and the Present Moment. London and New York: Routledge.
  17. Casement, P. (1992). Learning from the Patient. New York: Guilford.
  18. Casement, P. (2002). Between Patients in Raphael-Leff J, editor. Between Sessions and Beyond the Couch, p.29-32. University of Essex, Colchester: CPS Psychoanalytic Publications.
  19. Cassorla, R.M. (2012). What Happens before and after Acute Enactments? An Exercise in Clinical Validation and the Broadening of Hypotheses. Int. J. Psycho-Anal., 93(1): 53-80.
  20. Civitarese, G. & Ferro, A. (2013). The Meaning and Use of Metaphor in Analytic Field Theory. Psychoanal. Inq., 33(3):190-209.
  21. Cohler, B.J. (1996). Panel Report - Psychic Reality and The Analyst: The Inner Working of the Analyst’s Mind. Int. J. Psycho-Anal., 77: 89-95.
  22. Faimberg, H. (1988). The Telescoping of Generations: Genealogy of Certain Identifications. Contemp. Psychoanal., 24: 99-117.
  23. Ferro, A. & Basile, R. (2009). Eds. The Analytic Field: A Clinical Concept. London: Karnac.
  24. Fonagy, P. (1999). Memory and Therapeutic Action. Int. J. Psycho-Anal., 80(2): 215-223.
  25. Greenson, R.R. (1974). The Decline and Fall of the 50-Minute Hour. J. Amer. Psychoanal. Assn., 22:785-791.
  26. Jacobs, T.J. (1997). In Search of the Mind of the Analyst: A Progress Report. J. Amer. Psychoanal. Assn., 45:1035-10.
  27. Greenson, R.R. (2002). Once More with Feeling: On Working Through in the Analyst and Its Role in the Analytic Process. Psychoanal. Inq., 22(4): 599-616.
  28. Kernberg, O.F. (1996). The Analyst's Authority in the Psychoanalytic Situation. Psychoanal Q., 65:137-157.
  29. Lichtenberg, J.D. & Slap, J.W. (1977). Comments on the General Functioning of the Analyst in the Psychoanalytic Situation. Ann. Psychoanal., 5:295-312.
  30. Maldonado, J.L. (2014). A Mismatch of Meaning and Intentionality between Analyst and Analysand. Int. J. Psycho-Anal., 95(4): 641-662.
  31. Ogden, T. (1997). Reverie and Metaphor: Some Thoughts on How I Work as a Psychoanalyst. Int. J. Psycho-Anal., 78:719-732.
  32. Ogden, T. (1999). Reverie and Interpretation. London: Karnac.
  33. Ogden, T. (2004). The Analytic Third: Implications for Psychoanalytic Theory and Technique. Psychoanal Q., 73: 167-195.
  34. Ornstein, P.H. (2004). The Elusive Concept of the Psychoanalytic Process. J. Amer. Psychoanal. Assn., 52(1): 15-41.
  35. Raphael-Leff, J., editor (2002), Between Sessions and Beyond the Couch. University of Essex, Colchester: CPS Psychoanalytic Publications,
  36. Ramzy, I. (1974). How the Mind of the Psychoanalyst Works: An Essay on Psychoanalytic Inference. Int. J. Psycho-Anal., 55: 543-550.
  37. Sabbadini, A. (1989). Boundaries of Timelessness. Some Thoughts about the Temporal Dimension of the Psychoanalytic Space. Int. J. Psycho-Anal., 70: 305-313.
  38. Schafer, R. (1992). Retelling a Life: Narration and Dialogue in Psychoanalysis. New York: Basic Books.
  39. Schwartz, H.P. (2013). Neutrality in the Field: Alpha-Function and the Dreaming Dyad in Psychoanalytic Process. Psychoanal Q., 82(3): 587-613.
  40. Searles, H.F. (1985). Separation and Loss in Psychoanalytic Therapy with Borderline Patients: Further Remarks. Am. J. Psychoanal., 45 (1): 9-27
  41. Spero, M.H. (2010). After Hours: Temporal Developments at the Edge of the Analytic Session. Psychoanal Q., 79(2): 395-419.
  42. Steiner, J. (2000). Containment, Enactment and Communication. Int. J. Psycho-Anal., 81(2): 245-255.
  43. Steiner, J. (2000). Revenge and Resentment in The ‘Oedipus Situation’. Int. J. Psycho-Anal., 77: 433-443.
  44. Szasz, T.S. (1956). On the Experiences of the Analyst in the Psychoanalytic Situation a Contribution to the Theory of Psychoanalytic Treatment. J. Amer. Psychoanal. Assn., 4: 197-223,
  45. Tögel, C. (2009). Sigmund Freud's Practice: Visits and Consultation, Psychoanalyses, Remuneration. Psychoanal Q., 78(4): 1033-1058.
  46. Todorov, O. (2009). Psychotherapeutic Experiences with Methadone Maintained Patients in the Framework of Multidisciplinary Clinical Institution. Heroin Addict Relat Clin Probl 2009; 11(1): 35-40.11
  47. Tuckett, D. (1997). Mutual Enactment in the Psychoanalytic Situation. In: Ahumada, J., et al. The Perverse Transference and Other Matters: Essays in Honor of R. Horacio Etchegoyen. New York, London: Aronson, pp. 203-216.
  48. Tuckett, D. (2011). Inside and Outside the Window: Some Fundamental Elements in the Theory of Psychoanalytic Technique. Int. J. Psycho-Anal., 92: 1367-1390.
  49. Volkan, V. (1981). Linking Objects and Linking Phenomena: A Study of the Forms, Symptoms, Metapsychology, and Therapy of Complicated Mourning. New York: International University Press
  50. Waugaman, R.M. (2003). The Analyst's Caseload as a Family: Transferences to Fellow Patients. Psychoanal Q., 72: 575-614.
  51. Zaslavsky, J., Nunes, M.L. & Eizirik, C.L. (2005). Approaching Countertransference in Psychoanalytical Supervision: A Qualitative Investigation. Int. J. Psycho-Anal., 86(4): 1099-1131.
  52. Zwiebel, R. (2004). The Third Position: Reflections about the Internal Analytic Working Process. Psychoanal Q., 73: 215-265.